The course aims at improving the knowledge on plant organisms, from prokaryotic cyanobacteria to angiosperms, with emphasis on spermatophyte families and species of agronomic, food and medicinal relevance. Furthermore, the course deals with basic zoology, focusing on the body plain (bauplan) of the more relevant Phyla.
Expected learning outcomes
Basic knowledge on plant and animal biology needed for the next studies in the field of agricultural sciences.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
Programme of Didactic Unit 1: Agricultural Botany. Biomacromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Structure and functions of biomacromolecules. Cytology. Prokaryotic end eukaryotic cells. Animal and plant cells. plant cell structures: cell wall, vacuole and plastids. DNA replication and gene transcription. mRNA translation and protein biosynthesis. Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.Plant biochemistry. Photosynthesis and respiration. Plant histology and anatomy. Plant tissues. Meristematic tissues. Dermal tissue system: epidermis and periderm. Ground tissue system: parenchyma tissue, collenchyma tissue and sclerenchyma tissue. Vascular tissue system: xylem tissue and phloem tissue. The plant body. Primary growth. Structure and organization of stem. Structure and organization of root. Structure and organization of leaf. Secondary growth. Structure of woody stems. Flower anatomy and reproduction. Seed morphology and germination. Systematic botany. General characteristics and main taxa of Cyanobacteria. General characteristics and main taxa of Algae. General characteristics and main taxa of Bryophyta. General characteristics and main taxa of Pteridophyta. Spermatophytes. General characteristics and main taxa of Gymnosperms. General characteristics and main families of flowering plants. Angiosperms. Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. General characteristics and main taxa of Fungi.
Raven et al., Biology of Plants.Smith et al., Plant Biology, Garland Science.Campbell, Element of Structural and Systematic Botany.
Unit 2: Animal Biology. Animal Cells. The nucleus and the nucleolus. Chromatin organization. Genetic information and its expression: replication, transcript, translation, genetic code. Cytoplasm: the relationship between the structure and function of the Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus. Mitocondris and cellular oxidations. Cellular cycle and the mitosis. General morphofunctional characteristics and anatomical location of the epithelial covering and glandular tissues, support connectives and trophics, skeletal, cardiac, smooth and nervous muscle. Organization of the animals and human body, anatomical position, section plans, corporal cavities. Locomotor apparatus: Skeleton and its functions; general notions articular systems classification; general notions of the skeletal muscles. Integumentary apparatus: skin and attached cutaneous. Cardiovascular apparatus: general characteristics of blood and lymphatic circulation heart structure and conformation, pericardium, arteries, veins, capillaries land ymphoide organs. Digestive apparatus: organization of the food channel anatomy. Urinary apparatus: kidneys organization and microscopic anatomy, urinary pathways organizations. Genital apparatus: organization and anatomy of the gonads and the masculine and female genital pathways gametogenesis. Endocrine system. Morphofuncional characteristic of endocrine glands. Nervous system: general organization of the CNS; general notions on nerves; brainstem and cranial nerves encefalici; cerebellum; diencephalon and cerebrum. Survey of physiological systems that regulate levels of gases, food, energy, temperature, water, and ions. Examples from invertebrates and vertebrates. Animal development from fertilization through birth. The functional anatomy and life cycles of the major invertebrate taxa are emphasized. A comparative survey of vertebrates, focusing on their morphology, classification, and phylogeny.