Food microbiology and hygiene

A.Y. 2018/2019
Overall hours
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student should have a good knowledge that allows him to understand the basic concepts of hygiene and epidemiology, regarding to the applicative aspect of prevention in the exercise of his profession, to his safeguard and community health. In particular, the student must be able to: understand the concepts of health and illness, identify and analyze factors that influence health; know principles and problems related to the prevention and transmission of diseases; to know the problems of the risk of infection; possess behavioral skills to be implemented in the workplace in order to prevent the risk of infection for the operator and the community; to be able to apply the correct procedures of disinfection and disinfestation and the regulations on food safety; have good knowledge of vaccinations and be able to carry out educational and activities aimed at disseminating the principles of prevention.Give the fundamentals needed for the assessment of the
microbiological safety and quality in food. Learning
experimental protocols for the determination of the
principal microbial groups and of some pathogens in food.
Expected learning outcomes
To know how to implement a plan for the prevention and prophylaxis of infectious diseases in contexts of collective catering. To know how to collaborate in epidemiological studies aimed to recognize the causes of an infection / toxin infection / food poisoning originated in the field of collective catering. To know how to plan a local epidemiological study. To know how to plan and manage health procedures and food interventions for operators and employees of collective catering services. To be able to choose all activities to prevent individual and community illnesses in the performance of their profession in the field of collective catering.Knowing the main sources of microbial contamination
across the supply and distribution chain of food and the
mechanisms of infection and intoxication. Ability to apply
basic principles for the prevention and control of
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Unita' didattica 1: igiene
Course syllabus
General concepts: definition of hygiene, epidemiology, public health and health education. Health planning and Italian health organization: the foundations of public health. The Italian Institute of health (National Health Service). The structure of the NHS: the national, regional and local levels. The responsibilities of the NHS. Essential levels of assistance. Health education and health: the health conditions of the populations in the world and the promotion of health. Methodologies for prevention and health promotion. Ottawa-card health promotion. Epidemiology: definition, objectives and tools of epidemiology. Descriptive epidemiology: objectives of descriptive epidemiology. Data sources and measures of frequency of events (absolute frequency, ratios, proportions, rates). Incidence and prevalence. Main health indicators. Analytical epidemiology: objectives of analytical epidemiology. Concept of risk and causal relationship. Risk measures: absolute, relative, attributable risk. Analytical studies: prevalence, case-control or retrospective, cohort or prospective studies. Critical reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyzes. The epidemiology of infectious diseases, definition of contamination, contact, infection and disease. Transmission of infections: sources and reservoirs of infection, mechanisms of penetration and elimination, cases and carriers. Prevention of infections by airborne, fecal transmission, direct-transmission and vector-borne infections. Specific prophylaxis of infectious diseases: vaccine-prophylaxis, serum-prophylaxis, chemoprophylaxis. Vaccine-prophylaxis: types of vaccines, mechanisms of administration, adverse reactions. Mandatory and recommended vaccinations for at-risk categories. Food risk. Epidemiology of food-borne diseases and hints on food toxins. Food contamination and the prevention system. The organization of the national system of quality control of the food supply chain and the control in matters of food safety. Official health checks and obligations of food business operators. Information networks and alert systems for infectious diseases and food-borne diseases both at national (ISS, ASL, ARPAV, IZS), and internationally (Ecdc, Efsa, Ewrs, Rasff, WHO) levels. Practical examples: hospital catering and hospital infections.
Teaching methods
- S. Bearded, G.M. Fara, G. Giammanco, A. Carducci, M.A.Rabbit, D. D 'Alessandro, M.T. Mountain, M. L. Tanzi, C. M.Zotti. "HYGIENE". Third edition in 2011, Monduzzi Publisher.(Basic Text)- Nicola Comodo, Gavina Maciocco &amp
Unita' didattica 2: microbiologia degli alimenti
Course syllabus
The course aims to provide the knowledge for the assessment of hygiene and microbiological quality in food preparation. In particular, the student should: - know the main sources of microbial contamination along the food chain and distribution steps and the mechanisms of infection and intoxication of the main pathogens; - acquire the ability to apply the basic principles for the prevention and control of microorganisms; -learn experimental protocols for the determination of the main microbial groups and pathogenic organisms in foods. The presence of microorganisms in foods and in the food environment. The sources of contamination in the production and distribution process. The hygiene principles. The routes of transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. The food-borne microorganisms causing diseases (prions, HAV and enteric viruses, Salmonella, Shigella, V. cholerae, Campylobacter, Y. enterocolitica, L. monocytogenes, E. coli verotossici, B. cereus, Cl. Perfringens, S. aureus, Cl. botulinum), fungi (mycotoxins), algae. The microbial spoilage. Physiological and behavioral characteristics of microbial groups as markers of quality. Understanding factors controlling microorganisms. Factors that affect microbial growth (temperature, radiation, aw, pH and organic acids, redox potential, modified atmosphere packaging, preservatives and natural antimicrobial substances). The relationship between microorganisms: mutualism, commensalism, antagonism. Microbiological aspects of food preparation. Microbiology of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, cereals and cereal products, foods with low aw, beer and wine, drinking water and mineral water, soft drinks. Microbiology of ready to eat food. Micobiological analyses for the determination and identification of microorganisms in foods (laboratory).
Teaching methods
Lecture notes of the course. Slides and materialdistributed during the course.- A. Galli Volonterio. Microbiologia degli alimenti, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2005. -AAVV. Microbiologia dei prodotti alimentari Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 2012.
Unita' didattica 1: igiene
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Zampiero Alberto
Unita' didattica 2: microbiologia degli alimenti
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Laboratories: 24 hours
Lessons: 36 hours
Professor: Picozzi Claudia