Principles of plant protection

A.Y. 2018/2019
Overall hours
AGR/11 AGR/12
Learning objectives
Acquisition of basic knowledge on the aetiological agents of plant
diseases in spontaneuous and cultivated crops, the diagnostic
techniques, the disease development and the criteria for disease
management.The course aims to provide basic knowledge of general and applied entomology, with particular emphasis to taxa inhabiting agro-ecosystems and on procedures to estimate and manage the entomological component in this environment.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the main characteristics of the most important plant
pathogens and their interactions with the host. Knowledge of the
integrated strategies utilized for crop protection and of the
fundamental properties of fungicides.Basic knowledge of entomology; measurement and insect biodiversity conservation in agro-ecosystems; pest management strategies.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Plant pathology
Course syllabus
The course is intended to provide the main concepts underlying the study of plant pathology and the general criteria for plant protection against the plant disease agents. The main subjects are: The concept of disease, the disease triangle, host susceptibility, virulence and specialisation of the pathogen, favourable environmental conditions. Disease classification: nutritional, auxonic, vascular, lytic, necrotic and wood diseases. Koch's postulates. Disease symptoms: color alterations, anatomic modifications, different kinds of alterations. Assessment of damage incidence. Non infectious diseases: low temperature and pollutant effects. Aetiology of plant diseases: (i) Viruses and viroids: characteristics, classification, infection, replication and transmission, diagnosis, control methods; (ii) Bacteria and phytoplasmas: characteristics, classification, infection and colonization of the host, diagnosis, control methods; (iii) Fungi: characteristics, infection and colonization of the host, diagnosis, mycotoxin production. Host-pathogen relationships and plant defense mechanisms. Principles of epidemiology. Specific diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi. Plant protection: exclusion, eradication, resistance, therapy, cultural practices, chemical and biological control. Chemicals used in plant protection: general characteristics and problems related to the pesticide residues. Types of fungicides: copper, sulfur, dithiocarbamates, phthalimides, benzimidazoles, sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, phenylamides, phosphites, dicarboximides, phenylpirroles, strobilurins, anilinopyrimidines. Fungicide resistance.
Teaching methods
Slides used during classes.Book: G. Belli, Elementi di Patologia Vegetale, Piccin
Course syllabus
1. Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta 2. General notions of entomology. Morphology: Head, thorax, abdomen. Chewing, sucking and piercing mouthparts, the tegument. Internal systems: digestive, excretion, muscular, circulatory, reproductive, endocrine, exocrine and respiratory systems. The neuron and the nervous system and its physiology. Postembryonic development, mute / metamorphosis, age / stage, holometabolism, hemimetabolism. Mites. 3. Elements of insect population ecology. Population dynamics. Models of growth of a population of insects. Estimating the size of a population. Population fluctuations. r and K Strategies in r and K-selective development environments. Life tables, demographic patterns 4. Concept of damage and economic thresholds and their determination. IPM in agroecosystems, the concept of Key Pest agroecosystem. General concepts of biological control. Using alternative means to chemical control: pheromones, mass trapping, mating disruption. The main agricultural phytophages, systematic notions. A case study agro-ecosystems, the Vineyard. 5. Insects as biological environmental indicators 6. The measurement of biodiversity, with particular reference to agricultural entomology.
Teaching methods
Gli Insetti e il loro controllo. F. Pennacchio - Liguori Editore, Napoli.Lineamenti di Entomologia. P.J. Gullan, P.S. Cranston ¿ Zanichelli, Bologna.Entomologia applicata, volume 1. E. Tremblay - Liguori Editore, Napoli.Insect Ecology. An ecosystem approach. T.D: Schowalter ¿ Academic Press (disponibile on line).Lecture slides and notes
AGR/11 - GENERAL AND APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 8 hours
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Plant pathology
AGR/12 - PLANT PATHOLOGY - University credits: 4
Practicals: 8 hours
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Quaglino Fabio
Educational website(s)
On appointment by email (in case of health restrictions on Microsoft Teams)
Second flor - Building 7, via Celoria 2, Milan
Monday 14.30-15.30