Veterinary Anatomic Pathology 2

A.Y. 2018/2019
8
Max ECTS
88
Overall hours
SSD
VET/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Scopo del corso di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria II è quello di fornire agli studenti le nozioni necessarie per riconoscere, descrivere, interpretare e classificare (diagnosi anatomo-patologica) le modificazioni morfologiche (lesioni, alterazioni) degli apparati cardio-circolatorio, muscolo-scheletrico, urinario e riproduttore nel corso delle principali malattie degli animali domestici e di correlare tali modificazioni alla loro causa (eziologia) al loro sviluppo (patogenesi) ed eventuale evoluzione. Il corso si prefigge altresì l'intento di fornire le nozioni di base relative alle più comuni patologie neoplastiche degli animali domestici. Lo studente dovrà inoltre apprendere le tecniche necroscopiche di base per applicarle, unitamente alle conoscenze precedentemente acquisite, alla pratica diagnostica.
Al termine del corso, lo studente dovrebbe essere in grado di decodificare correttamente la diagnosi delle patologie trattate comprendendone la valenza prognostica o le ricadute sanitarie e/o economiche e saper definire le corrette procedure atte a condurre alla diagnosi.
Gli obiettivi del corso sono schematicamente individuati come segue:
Conoscenze e capacità di comprensione
Al termine del corso lo studente dovrà aver acquisito le conoscenze teoriche e pratiche necessarie a riconoscere le principali lesioni anatomo-patologiche, incluse le patologie neoplastiche, degli organi ed apparati trattati, saperne indicare cause e patogenesi e conoscere gli aspetti prognostici e le ricadute sanitarie e/o economiche delle principali patologie trattate. Lo studente dovrà inoltre sapere come conservare un cadavere di animale, quali sono le più importanti alterazioni post-mortali e la cronologia del loro manifestarsi nonché i fattori che possono influire su di essi.
Capacità di applicare conoscenza e comprensione
Lo studente dovrà avvalersi delle conoscenze teoriche e pratiche acquisite per formulare una diagnosi anatomo-patologica delle principali lesioni anatomo-patologiche, incluse le patologie neoplastiche, per porre eventuali diagnosi differenziali e per saper indicare le metodiche più appropriate per conseguire la diagnosi. Al termine del corso inoltre lo studente dovrà saper accertare la morte dell'animale, raccogliere correttamente i dati anamnestici, effettuare un esame necroscopico completo riportando nel giusto ordine e con terminologia corretta tutti i reperti macroscopici osservati
Autonomia di giudizio
Al termine del corso lo studente dovrà mostrare di saper interpretare in modo autonomo le alterazioni morfologiche relative alle lesioni anatomo-patologiche trattate. Dovrà inoltre saper correlare correttamente le lesioni osservate e descritte in modo da saperne definire autonomamente il ruolo nel deteriminismo della causa di morte.
Abilità comunicative
Al fine di sviluppare la capacità del futuro veterinario di comunicare correttamente con il proprietario dell'animale, si chiede che alla fine del corso lo studente sappia esporre quanto appreso in modo semplice e chiaro utilizzando una terminologia scientifica corretta ed appropriata.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
ATTENDING STUDENTS
Modulo: Anatomia patologica 2
Course syllabus
COURSE OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the module are schematically identified as follows:
Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student must have acquired the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to recognize the main anatomical and pathological lesions and to identify causes and pathogenesis of the organs and systems treated during the course. The student must also know the prognostic aspects and the health and / or economic consequences of the main diseases treated.
Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will have to use the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired to make an anatomical-pathological diagnosis, and when necessary differential diagnoses and to be able to indicate the most appropriate techniques and methods to achieve a correct anatomical-pathological diagnosis.
Making judgments
At the end of the course the student will have to show to be able to autonomously interpret the morphological alterations related to the anatomical-pathological lesions treated in the course.
Communication skills
In order to develop the capacity of the future veterinary to communicate appropriately with the owner of the animal, at the end of the course the student is asked to explain what has been learned in a simple and clear way using the correct and appropriate scientific terminology.

COURSE PROGRAM
Lessons
The major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described in the lectures. The following model is applied to descirbe lesions in each chapter: post mortal changes, developmental anomalies and malformations, physico-chemical injury, metabolic diseases, disturbances of circulation, inflammation, parasitic diseases.

Cardiovascular system pathology (hours 4)
Heart - fluid accumulations in the pericardial sac, serous atrophy of pericardial fat, pericarditis, myocardial degenerations and necrosis, dietetic myocardial dystrophy, cardiomyopaties, myocarditis, parasites, endocardial calcification, valvular endocardiosis, endocarditis
Arteries - ruptures, aneurysms, thrombosis, degenerative and regressive arteriopathies (amyloidosis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, calcification, fibrinoid change of the arterial wall), arteritis, blood vessels parasites
Veins - ectasia, varicosity, thrombosis, phlebitis

Hematopoietic system pathology (hours 3)
Spleen - Developmental abnormalities, ectopy, ruptures, circulatory disturbances (congestion, hematomas, infarction), metabolic changes (amyloidosis, hemosiderosis, necrosis), splenitis, parasites
Lymph nodes - atrophy, pigmentary changes, necrosis, , circulatory disturbances, lymphadenitis, lymphangectasis, lymphangytis

Urinary system pathology (hours 4)
Kidney - Developmental abnormalities, circulatory disturbances (hemorrhage, infarction), trophic, degenerative and regressive changes (atrophy, vacuolar tubular degeneration, lipidosis, amyloidosis, necrosis), pigmentary and chrystalline nephrosis, nephritis (Glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, purulent nephritis, granulomatous nephritis), parasitic diseases of the kidney
Lower urinary system - Hydronephrosis, developmental abnormalities of the urinary bladder, bovine enzootic hematuria, urolithiasis, cystitis

Male reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Testis - Developmental abnormalities (aplasia, chryptorchidism, hermaphrodite), atrophy, necrosis, calcification, orchitis, periorchitis, vaginalitis, sperm granuloma
Prostate gland - hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, prostatic cysts, prostatitis
Penis and prepuce - phimosis, paraphimosis, posthitis, balanoposthitis (EHV3 and Trypanosoma equiperdum, habronemiasis)

Female reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphrodite, oophoritis, ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, salpingitis, Developmental abnormalities of the uterus, uterine distopy, uterine and vaginal prolapse, cystic endometrial hyperplasy, hydrometra, mucometra, adenomyosis, endometritis, metritis, biopsie uterine biopsies in mare, vaginitis, vulvovaginitis

Abortion (hour 1)
Embryonic death, mummification, maceration, infectious abortion (bovine, small ruminants, equine, swine, dog and cat)

Scheletal muscle pathology (hours 2)
Circulatory disturbances, atrophy, lipomatosis, vacuolar, granular, hyaline degeneration, Zenker's necrosis, calcification, dietetic myopaties, myositis, granulomas, parassiti (sarcosporidiosis, cysticercosis, trichinosis)

Mammary gland pathology (The topic will be treated during practices with slides projection, description and discussion of the most important changes and lesions. Slide presentation with notes will be available)
Mastitis

Bone and joints pathology (The topic will be treated during practices to small groups using museum material (bones). Slide presentation with notes will be available).
Fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (rachitism, osteomalacia, fibrous osteodystrophy, fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), pigmental changes, periostitis, osteomyelitis. Dyscopathy, arthritis and polyarthritis

Practices
Bone and joints pathology: practical rotation with small groups of students using pathologic material form museum (ore 2)
Local and systemic bone malformations, fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), periostitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis.

Description and discussion of gross changes of organs: practical rotation with small groups of students using organs from slaughters (Necropsy room) (3 rotations of 2 hours)
Serous athrophy of fat, pericarditis, endocarditis, infartcion of kidney, nephritis, lymph nodes pigmentations, lymphadenitis, splenic congestion, perisplenitis, splenitis, artritis are the most frequent observed and discussed findings

Projection, description and discussion of images of gross lesions of organs. (Classroom) (4 rotations of 2 hours).
Some of the major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described and discussed.

Teaching material

The reference teaching material, in the form of pdf files of the Power Point presentations used during the lessons, is published online in the Ariel 2.0 portal of the University site at http://ariel.unimi.it/User/Default.aspx

At the same address are reported iconographic material relating to the main anatomical and pathological lesions observed during the practices, links to sites related to the veterinary pathology and to documents and sites of general interest concerning veterinary medicine. Many of these documents relate to regulatory and deontological aspects of the veterinary profession.

Suggested books

- Trattato di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria a cura di F. Guarda e G. Mandelli, B. Biolatti, E. Scanziani quarta edizione, 2013, UTET, Torino.
- Tecnica delle autopsie e diagnostica cadaverica di S. Biavati, Giraldi editore, (1999) San
Lazzaro di Savena (BO) (da consultare).

For more information an knowledge

- Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 5th Edition di Zachary & McGavin, Mosby Ed.
- Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria, P.S. Marcato, II edizione, 2015, Edagricole
Modulo: Oncologia
Course syllabus
The module consists of 2 CFU (16 hrs) of theoretical teaching:

GENERAL OBIECTIVE OF THE COURSE/MODULE
The module is intended to provide the student with the underpinning knowledge of veterinary oncology.
Goals to achieve:
1 - Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student is required to demonstrate knowledge of the commonest tumors of domestic animals, being able to correctly define each tumor and define its most likely biological behavior recognizing, if present, significant specie specific differences.
2 - Applying knowledge and understanding
The student should be able to apply the theoretical knowledge acquired to recognize main gross pathologic feature of domestic animal neoplasia, and therefore to make a correct gross diagnosis and, when relevant, main differential diagnoses. The student should also be able to select the appropriate additional diagnostic tests (e.g. cytology, histology) to achieve a definite diagnosis and to understand the limitations of the test results.
3 - Making judgments
At the end of the course the student must be able to critically interpret the contribution, along with the limitations, that pathology gives to other diagnostic techniques in achieving the diagnosis
4 - Communication skills
In order to develop the capacity of the future veterinary to communicate appropriately with the owner of the animal, at the end of the course the student is asked to explain what has been learned in a simple and clear way using correct and updated scientific terminology.

PROGRAM OF THE MODULE (TOPICS)

Basic principle of oncology, definitions, hallmarks of differentiation, staging and grading, basic mechanism of invasion and metastatization (2 hrs)

Tumors of the alimentary system (oral cavity, esophagus, prestomachs, stomach, intestine) (2 hrs)
Tumors of liver and pancreas (1 hour)
Tumors of the urinary system (1 hour)
Tumors of the male and female genital system (1 hour)
Tumors of the respiratory system (nasal cavities, laryngeal, lungs) (2 hrs)
Tumors of the heart and vessels (1 hour)
Tumors of the skeletal system (1 hour)
Tumors of the tegumentary system (2 hrs)
Tumors of the mammary gland (1 hour)
Tumors of the lymphoproliferative system (1 hour)
Tumors of the central nervous system (1 hour)
Modulo: Autopsie
Course syllabus
MODULE PLAN
The module consists of 3 credits
- 1 Credit (8 hours) of theoretical lessons
- 2 credits (32 hours) of practices, mostly in necropsy hall examining cadavers of small and large animals and a part edicated to seminars in which images of necropsy acses are illustrated and discussed.

THEORETICAL LESSONS
- Course introduction (1 HOUR). Definitions, motivation and advantages of the necropsy.
- Death verification and animal history collection (2 HOURS)- how to verify that the animal is death. Detailed list of the important animal historical data to be cololected before necrpsy. Environmental data of the place the corps was dead/found dead.
- Post-mortem modification and putrefaction (3HOURS) . Hypostasis and hypostatic spots evolution, cadaveric and putrfactive spots. Algor, pallor ang rigor mortis. Characteristics of the animal and of the environment that can influence rigor mortis. Cadaveric dehydration, ocular post-mortem alterations. Putrefactive meteorism and emphysema.
- Exams of the single abdominal and thoracic organs (2 HOURS). How to extract the various organs and in which order. Principal indicators of pathology organ by organ

PRACTICES
- Necropsy of pet animals (10 HOURS). In necropsy hall, students are divided in small groups,e ach one examining a cat or a dog. Studernts decribe the observed lesions to be discussed with the teacher in order to individuate the possible cause of the death.
- Necrpsy of large animals (10 HOURS). In necropsy hall, students are divided in small groups,e ach one examining bovine, swine or equine. Studernts decribe the observed lesions to be discussed with the teacher in order to individuate the possible cause of the death.
- Seminars (12 HOURS). 6 SEMINARS OF 2 HOURS EACH in which at teh beginning are showed the single steps of the necropsy (adults and neonates). Images illustrating the necropsy findings of the most important infectious diseases of dog and cat and the most important organs lesions are illustrated and discussed with students. Images of weapon healings and brief comments on ballistic.
NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS
Modulo: Anatomia patologica 2
Course syllabus
The frequency is mandatory.
Modulo: Oncologia
Course syllabus
Not provided
Modulo: Autopsie
Course syllabus
Not provided
Modulo: Anatomia patologica 2
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Shifts:
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Attivit esercitative GRUPPO per tutti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Attivit esercitative ripetute a gruppi di studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Modulo: Autopsie
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 8 hours
Shifts:
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Attività esercitative GRUPPO per tutti
Professors: Grieco Valeria, Sironi Giuseppe
Attività esercitative ripetute a gruppi di studenti
Professors: Grieco Valeria, Riccaboni Pietro
Modulo: Oncologia
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Giudice Chiara
Professor(s)
Reception:
E-mail
Pathology ward in Veterinary hospital - Lodi
Reception:
Monday to Friday, by appointment
Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria - Lodi