The objectives of the module are schematically identified as follows:
Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course the student must have acquired the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to recognize the main anatomical and pathological lesions and to identify causes and pathogenesis of the organs and systems treated during the course. The student must also know the prognostic aspects and the health and / or economic consequences of the main diseases treated.
Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will have to use the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired to make an anatomical-pathological diagnosis, and when necessary differential diagnoses and to be able to indicate the most appropriate techniques and methods to achieve a correct anatomical-pathological diagnosis.
At the end of the course the student will have to show to be able to autonomously interpret the morphological alterations related to the anatomical-pathological lesions treated in the course.
In order to develop the capacity of the future veterinary to communicate appropriately with the owner of the animal, at the end of the course the student is asked to explain what has been learned in a simple and clear way using the correct and appropriate scientific terminology.
The major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described in the lectures. The following model is applied to descirbe lesions in each chapter: post mortal changes, developmental anomalies and malformations, physico-chemical injury, metabolic diseases, disturbances of circulation, inflammation, parasitic diseases.
Cardiovascular system pathology (hours 4)
Heart - fluid accumulations in the pericardial sac, serous atrophy of pericardial fat, pericarditis, myocardial degenerations and necrosis, dietetic myocardial dystrophy, cardiomyopaties, myocarditis, parasites, endocardial calcification, valvular endocardiosis, endocarditis
Arteries - ruptures, aneurysms, thrombosis, degenerative and regressive arteriopathies (amyloidosis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, calcification, fibrinoid change of the arterial wall), arteritis, blood vessels parasites
Veins - ectasia, varicosity, thrombosis, phlebitis
Hematopoietic system pathology (hours 3)
Spleen - Developmental abnormalities, ectopy, ruptures, circulatory disturbances (congestion, hematomas, infarction), metabolic changes (amyloidosis, hemosiderosis, necrosis), splenitis, parasites
Lymph nodes - atrophy, pigmentary changes, necrosis, , circulatory disturbances, lymphadenitis, lymphangectasis, lymphangytis
Urinary system pathology (hours 4)
Kidney - Developmental abnormalities, circulatory disturbances (hemorrhage, infarction), trophic, degenerative and regressive changes (atrophy, vacuolar tubular degeneration, lipidosis, amyloidosis, necrosis), pigmentary and chrystalline nephrosis, nephritis (Glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, purulent nephritis, granulomatous nephritis), parasitic diseases of the kidney
Lower urinary system - Hydronephrosis, developmental abnormalities of the urinary bladder, bovine enzootic hematuria, urolithiasis, cystitis
Male reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Testis - Developmental abnormalities (aplasia, chryptorchidism, hermaphrodite), atrophy, necrosis, calcification, orchitis, periorchitis, vaginalitis, sperm granuloma
Prostate gland - hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, prostatic cysts, prostatitis
Penis and prepuce - phimosis, paraphimosis, posthitis, balanoposthitis (EHV3 and Trypanosoma equiperdum, habronemiasis)
Female reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphrodite, oophoritis, ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, salpingitis, Developmental abnormalities of the uterus, uterine distopy, uterine and vaginal prolapse, cystic endometrial hyperplasy, hydrometra, mucometra, adenomyosis, endometritis, metritis, biopsie uterine biopsies in mare, vaginitis, vulvovaginitis
Abortion (hour 1)
Embryonic death, mummification, maceration, infectious abortion (bovine, small ruminants, equine, swine, dog and cat)
Scheletal muscle pathology (hours 2)
Circulatory disturbances, atrophy, lipomatosis, vacuolar, granular, hyaline degeneration, Zenker's necrosis, calcification, dietetic myopaties, myositis, granulomas, parassiti (sarcosporidiosis, cysticercosis, trichinosis)
Mammary gland pathology (The topic will be treated during practices with slides projection, description and discussion of the most important changes and lesions. Slide presentation with notes will be available)
Bone and joints pathology (The topic will be treated during practices to small groups using museum material (bones). Slide presentation with notes will be available).
Fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (rachitism, osteomalacia, fibrous osteodystrophy, fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), pigmental changes, periostitis, osteomyelitis. Dyscopathy, arthritis and polyarthritis
Bone and joints pathology: practical rotation with small groups of students using pathologic material form museum (ore 2)
Local and systemic bone malformations, fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), periostitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis.
Description and discussion of gross changes of organs: practical rotation with small groups of students using organs from slaughters (Necropsy room) (3 rotations of 2 hours)
Serous athrophy of fat, pericarditis, endocarditis, infartcion of kidney, nephritis, lymph nodes pigmentations, lymphadenitis, splenic congestion, perisplenitis, splenitis, artritis are the most frequent observed and discussed findings
Projection, description and discussion of images of gross lesions of organs. (Classroom) (4 rotations of 2 hours).
Some of the major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described and discussed.
The reference teaching material, in the form of pdf files of the Power Point presentations used during the lessons, is published online in the Ariel 2.0 portal of the University site at http://ariel.unimi.it/User/Default.aspx
At the same address are reported iconographic material relating to the main anatomical and pathological lesions observed during the practices, links to sites related to the veterinary pathology and to documents and sites of general interest concerning veterinary medicine. Many of these documents relate to regulatory and deontological aspects of the veterinary profession.
- Trattato di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria a cura di F. Guarda e G. Mandelli, B. Biolatti, E. Scanziani quarta edizione, 2013, UTET, Torino.
- Tecnica delle autopsie e diagnostica cadaverica di S. Biavati, Giraldi editore, (1999) San
Lazzaro di Savena (BO) (da consultare).
For more information an knowledge
- Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 5th Edition di Zachary & McGavin, Mosby Ed.
- Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria, P.S. Marcato, II edizione, 2015, Edagricole