Seismic Exploration and Laboratory

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Knowledge and understanding: Learn the basic knowledge of reflection seismic for what concerns seismic data acquisition and processing up to building an image of the subsurface (stack section). Acquire the terminology pertinent to the Exploration Seismology.
Applying knowledge and understanding: The acquired knowledge are used to analyse the problems found in real land and marine seismic data and to propose suitable solutions for the processing and, possibly, for the acquisition.
Expected learning outcomes
Making judgements: The acquired knowledge allows to evaluate critically the results at the end of the seismic data processing. For each processing steps the student, autonomously, is able to estimate the correct parameters for obtaining the optimal results from the available seismic data.
Communication skills: The student is able to clearly communicate to third party the topics of Exploration Seismology and the issues inherent to the seismic data processing and acquisition; moreover is able to illustrate to the experts in the field the possible solutions that can be adopted to tackle these issues or problems.
Learning skills: Give the student the ability to learn autonomously topics that can not be dealt with during the lessons due to the limited time available, and also give him/her the ability to deepen the ones discussed.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Lectures and laboratory lessons could be carried out in synchronous mode using the TEAMS platform
Prerequisites for admission
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral examination
Course syllabus
The course aims to provide the necessary knowledge for understanding the generation and effects of earthquakes and the modelling of propagation of seismic wave through the planet. The course also discusses applications of such a knowledge in order to assess the seismic hazard and some of the most recent advancements in seismology
Fracture's mechanism, sismotectonics and Anderson's theory of faulting
Hooke's law, momentum equation and body seismic waves (compressional and shear waves)
Refraction, attenuation of seismic waves, eiconal equation and ray's theory in stratified media and spherical Earth models.
Surface seismic waves (Rayleigh and Love waves), tsunami and free oscillation of the Earth
Seismic moment tensor, Volterra's representation theorem, point-like forces, couple of forces and double couple of forces.
Determination of the epicenter and hypocenter, focal mechanism and energy released by earthquakes.
Seismic hazard and regulation.
System's response, free and forced oscillation and methods of calculation.
Temporal distribution, seismic moment-frequency relation, attenuation's law, earthquake catalogues and seismic moment conservation principle.
Methods of seismic microzoning
Evaluation of site effects, liquefaction and seismic amplification.
Geodetic data inversion of the dislocation distribution over the fault plane.
Space gravity data from satellite missions GRACE (NASA) and GOCE (ESA) and the gravitational seismology.
Shift of the rotation axis due to megathrust earthquakes at subduction zones.
Modelling of global seismicity during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons
Teaching Resources
Notes provided at the beginning of the course
The book "The rheology of the Earth" di Giorgio Ranalli (1995)
Seismology Laboratory
Course syllabus
The course provides the necessary knowledge to understand the generation and effects of earthquakes and the modeling of seismic wave propagation within the Earth.
1) Access to the database of the main seismological data centers to obtain seismic catalogs, metadata of the seismic networks and waveforms
2) Waveform analysis
3) Seismic velocity models, seismic phases and picking
4) Estimate of the magntude
5) Hypocentre location
6) Basic programming skills in Python
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and exercises
Teaching Resources
Notes provided at the beginning of the course
GEO/10 - SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Cambiotti Gabriele
Seismology Laboratory
GEO/10 - SOLID EARTH GEOPHYSICS - University credits: 3
Practicals: 36 hours
Wednesday 2:30 pm
Sezione Geofisica, Via Cicognara 7