Part 1 Propedaeutic concepts Analytical Chemistry: definition, history, significance. Analytical methods. Sequence of steps in a typical quantitative analysis. Sampling. Elements of theory of errors applied to analytical chemistry; criteria for data treatment and statistical tests. Concentration scales, ionic strength, activities, activity coefficients. Nernst law, galvanic cells, ion-reversible electrodes, electrode potential scale.
Part 2 Volumetric analysis. Titration methods: definitions, classification, standards. Acid/base, precipitation, complessation and redox titrations: mathematical descriptions of the corresponding equilibria and titration diagrams; in particular, De Levie method for easy unapproximated simulation of acid/base equilibria and titration curves even in very complex cases; examples of spreadsheet implementation; survey of experimental cases.
Part 3 Electroanalysis. Conductimetry, potentiometry (ion-selective electrodes, pH-metry, p-Ionometry, redox potential, water hardness), voltammetry (cyclic voltammetry, polarography, pulsed techniques, stripping techniques for trace analysis), amperometry (trace water by Karl Fischer method, dissolved oxygen by Clark method), biosensors and electronic tongues/noses (hints). Fundamentals, instrumentation, protocols (standardization, direct measurements, instrumental titrations). Model cases in the analytical laboratory and in fundamental and applied research.
Laboratory of analytical chemistry I
Lessons Fundamental instrumentation and operation in analytical chemistry, Safety regulations, Good Laboratory Practice, survey of experimental laboratory procedures and details. Data collection and treatment. Error analysis. Stechiometric calculations for analytical chemistry concerning solution preparation and titrations, with statistical data treatment. Use of the electronic spreadsheet (Excel) for analytical data treatment and equilibria and titration simulations. Laboratory experiments 1. Volumetric analysis with colorimetric indicators Preparation of standard solutions, acid/base titrations, complexation titrations, precipi¬tation titrations, redox titrations. 2. Electroanalysis Conductimetry: conductimeter calibration, direct measurement of specific con-ducti¬vi¬ty, conductimetric titrations. Potentiometry: ion-selective electrode assembling, calibra¬tion and use for direct pIon determination; pH standards and direct pH measurements; potentiometric acid/base, precipitation, complexation and redox titrations. Amperometry: iodometric titration of Vitamin C by the amperometric method based on two polarizable electrodes.