Oils, fats and their derivatives are staple food ingredients. The aim of the course is to provide the student with the knowledges necessary for a conscious use of oils and fats in the food formulations and for an optimization of the technological processes applied to the fat-containing foods.
At the end of the course, the student will manage the relations existing between the chemistry of lipids, their preparation and modification technologies and their functional and technological performances in the various food products. He will also acquire the basic criteria necessary to perform the best choice in dependence of the kind of food and process technology.
Oils and fats: nomenclature and classification. Basic concepts of chemistry of fats and their major reactions. Oxidation reactions and antioxidants. Physical properties and polymorfism phenomena. Raw materials, supply and composition of the various oils and fats. Culinary fats: salad frying oils. Deep fat frying process. Principal reactions during frying. Strategies to reduce the oil content in fried products. Food emulsions: characteristics and stability. Emulsifiers. Production process of mayonnaise. Double emulsions. Margarines and shortenings: production process and use in food industries. Notes on oil and fat modification processes (hydrogenation, fractionation, interesterification). Bakery fats: characteristics, roles, and uses. Puff pastry production. Confectionery fats: characteristics and uses. Cocoa butter and alternatives. Troubles. Fat replacers: typologies and applications. Organogels: organogelling strategies and applications.
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