The course will give the student the fundamental bases of chemistry, aimed at understanding the structure, the properties as well as the reactivity of matter.
In this course the student will acquire the basic knowledge of chemistry, usefull not only for his scientific formation, but also for a profitable study of other chemically- and biochemically-oriented courses.
Introduction: basic concepts. - The measures and the metric system-Atoms, molecules, and ions. - The states of matter, atomic theory, atomic structure, periodic table - Stoichiometry. - Law of conservation of mass, chemical equations-energy relations: the first law of thermodynamics. - The thermodynamic state function entalpia.-atomic structures of atoms: fundamental concepts, uncertainty principle; representation of the orbitals (orbitals s, p, and d). Structure-mail: periodicity. - Orbitals in atoms and electronic multi-periodic properties of chemical bonds. - Symbols and Lewis octet rule, ionic bond, covalent bond-structure of molecules and molecular orbitals, VB and MO theory - Theory of repulsion between electron pairs in the valence layer (VSEPR model) hybrid orbitals and shape of the molecules. Gas. - Ownership of the gas pressure, gas laws. Liquids, solids and intermolecular forces. - Phase equilibria; intermolecular attractive forces, hydrogen bonding. Solutions. - Ways of expressing concentration, electrolyte solutions, colligative properties. Chemical equilibrium. - Law of mass action and equilibrium constant (unit of measurement of concentrations and expression of the equilibrium constant); heterogeneous equilibria, use of the equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle. Equilibria in aqueous solutions, acids and bases. - Water; theory of acids and bases according to: a) Arrhenius, b) Broensted-Lowry c) Lewis; pH scale, strong acids and bases, weak acids. Chemical thermodynamics. - Enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs energy. Electrochemistry. - Redox reactions, oxidation-reduction potential and their application. Descriptive inorganic chemistry. - Periodic Table: blocks s, p, d, f. Groups and periods. Changes in the properties along the periodic groups and periods. Program Stoichiometric Calculations. Significance of the measures. Chemical formulas. Reports in moles and mass in chemical reactions. Conservation of mass. Balancing chemical equations. The equation of state of an ideal gas. Solutions. Ways to express the composition. Colligative properties. The chemical balance. Equilibrium in the gas phase: Kp, Kc and their use. Equilibria in homogeneous aqueous solution. Neutral solutions, acids and bases. pH and pOH calculations. Electrochemistry: Electrode potentials of reduction and their application.
text book: J.C. Kotz, P.M. Treichel, J.R. Townsend ¿ Chimica¿ V Edition, EdiSES.notes from lessons, textes and solutions of exams is available at http://ariel.unimi.it