Technology and microbiology of food processing

A.Y. 2019/2020
Lesson for
11
Max ECTS
96
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/15 AGR/16
Language
Italian

Course structure and Syllabus

Active edition
Yes
Responsible
Agricultural industries
AGR/15 - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: De Noni Ivano
Agricultural Microbiology
AGR/16 - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 5
Laboratories: 16 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Zanchi Raffaella
ATTENDING STUDENTS
Agricultural Microbiology
Syllabus
Introduction to general and applied microbiology. Structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes: generality and comparison. Prokaryote morphology and cytology. Growth of microorganisms, methods for its estimation and expression. Influence of environmental factors on microbial growth. Antimicrobial treatments. Microorganisms nutritional requirements. Microbial metabolism and physiological groups. Bacteriophages. Genetics of prokaryotes: mutations and gene recombination. Microbial ecology: interactions among microorganisms and animals. Microorganisms in food conservation and transformation. Dairy microbiology: pro-technologic, alterative and pathogenic micro-organisms. Natural and selected dairy starters. Wine microbiology. Starters for wine production.
Laboratory practices - Sterilization, disinfection and asepsis. Solid and liquid preparation of culture media. Application of good aseptic technique to microbiological testing, sowing of bacteria in conditions of sterility and pure culture techniques. Techniques for detection and enumeration of viable microorganisms. Microscopic observation of bacteria: preparation of fresh and colored microscope slides. Microbiological analysis of milk. Microbiological analysis of water. Techniques for the identification of microorganisms.
Agricultural industries
Syllabus
MILK - Milk chemistry and microbiology
- Factors affecting milk production and
composition. Physical properties (acid-
base equilibria, density, viscosity,
freezing point). Functionality and
structure of the most important
components of milk (lactose, fat,
caseins, whey proteins, enzymes and
minerals) and their roles in dairy
products. The effects of processing on
the structure and functionality of milk
constituents. Important micro-organisms
in milk and dairy products and factors
affecting their reproduction and survival.
Control of spoilage and pathogenic
micro-organisms during production and
storage of dairy products. Dairy
technology Consumption milk -
Destruction of micro-organisms by heat
treatment: thermisation, pasteurisation
and sterilisation processes. Removal of
micro-organisms by means of
membrane filtration technologies.
Cultured milk - Manufacture technology
of yogurt and cultured milks. Probiotic
properties of lactic acid bacteria.
Cultured milk as functional foods.Butter
- Chemical and microbiological
characteristics of the different types of
cream. Industrial buttermaking
processes. Technologies for production
of anhydrous milk fat. Milk powders -
Technologies for manufacture of milk
powders. Powder agglomeration. Types
and quality characteristics of milk
powder. Cheese - Analysis of the
cheesemaking steps including type of
milk, rennet, cheese starters, processing
within the vat and processing post-vat.
Technologies for manufacture of
different Italian cheeses and processed
cheese. Physical and biochemical
phenomena occurring during
ripening.Quality control of dairy products
including quality standards provided by
either EU specifications or government
regulations. WINE - Composition of
grapes; changes of main grape
components during maturation and the
importance thereof for the fermentation
process and wine quality. Criteria for
determining harvest readiness. Grape
and exogenous enzymes. Glycosidasic
enzymes. Phenolic substances:
anthocyans, flavanols, procyanidines,
tannins. Polimerization and stabilization
of colour. Oxidative pathway in must. The
harvesting and handling of grapes, must
and skins before, during and after
fermentation. Taxonomy and ecology of
grape and wine yeasts. Yeast
oenological characteristics and
condition for yeasts development.
Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation
and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts.
Microbial spoilage of wines and applied
aspects of moulds and lactic acid
bacteria during winemaking. Malolactic
fermentation. Use of sulphur dioxide in
must and wine treatment. Products and
methods complementing the effect of
sulphur dioxide. Principles of
winemaking including schemes of grape
processing and special demands in
individual technological practices: white,
red, rose and sparkling wines, special
wines and wines of special quality. Fining
agents use optimization. Protein,
tartrate, oxidative, colour and metal
stability Principles and techniques for
physicochemical and microbiological
stabilization of wine. Enzymes in
winemaking. Bottling. Wood barrel
ageing.
NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS
Agricultural Microbiology
Syllabus
Introduction to the general and applied microbiology. Structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes: generality and comparison. Prokaryote morphology and cytology. Growth of microorganisms, methods for its estimation and expression. Influence of environmental factors on microbial growth. Antimicrobial treatments. Microorganisms nutritional requirements. Microbial metabolism and physiological groups. Bacteriophages. Genetics of prokaryotes: mutations and gene recombination. Microbial ecology: interactions among microorganisms and animals. Microorganisms in food conservation and transformation. Dairy microbiology: pro-technologic, alterative and pathogenic micro-organisms. Natural and selected dairy starters. Wine microbiology. Starters for wine production.
Laboratory practices - Sterilization, disinfection and asepsis. Solid and liquid preparation of culture media. Application of good aseptic technique to microbiological testing, sowing of bacteria in conditions of sterility and pure culture techniques. Techniques for detection and enumeration of viable microorganisms. Microscopic observation of bacteria: preparation of fresh and colored microscope slides. Microbiological analysis of milk. Microbiological analysis of water. Techniques for the identification of microorganisms.
Agricultural industries
Syllabus
MILK - Milk chemistry and microbiology
- Factors affecting milk production and
composition. Physical properties (acid-
base equilibria, density, viscosity,
freezing point). Functionality and
structure of the most important
components of milk (lactose, fat,
caseins, whey proteins, enzymes and
minerals) and their roles in dairy
products. The effects of processing on
the structure and functionality of milk
constituents. Important micro-organisms
in milk and dairy products and factors
affecting their reproduction and survival.
Control of spoilage and pathogenic
micro-organisms during production and
storage of dairy products. Dairy
technology Consumption milk -
Destruction of micro-organisms by heat
treatment: thermisation, pasteurisation
and sterilisation processes. Removal of
micro-organisms by means of
membrane filtration technologies.
Cultured milk - Manufacture technology
of yogurt and cultured milks. Probiotic
properties of lactic acid bacteria.
Cultured milk as functional foods.Butter
- Chemical and microbiological
characteristics of the different types of
cream. Industrial buttermaking
processes. Technologies for production
of anhydrous milk fat. Milk powders -
Technologies for manufacture of milk
powders. Powder agglomeration. Types
and quality characteristics of milk
powder. Cheese - Analysis of the
cheesemaking steps including type of
milk, rennet, cheese starters, processing
within the vat and processing post-vat.
Technologies for manufacture of
different Italian cheeses and processed
cheese. Physical and biochemical
phenomena occurring during
ripening.Quality control of dairy products
including quality standards provided by
either EU specifications or government
regulations. WINE - Composition of
grapes; changes of main grape
components during maturation and the
importance thereof for the fermentation
process and wine quality. Criteria for
determining harvest readiness. Grape
and exogenous enzymes. Glycosidasic
enzymes. Phenolic substances:
anthocyans, flavanols, procyanidines,
tannins. Polimerization and stabilization
of colour. Oxidative pathway in must. The
harvesting and handling of grapes, must
and skins before, during and after
fermentation. Taxonomy and ecology of
grape and wine yeasts. Yeast
oenological characteristics and
condition for yeasts development.
Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation
and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts.
Microbial spoilage of wines and applied
aspects of moulds and lactic acid
bacteria during winemaking. Malolactic
fermentation. Use of sulphur dioxide in
must and wine treatment. Products and
methods complementing the effect of
sulphur dioxide. Principles of
winemaking including schemes of grape
processing and special demands in
individual technological practices: white,
red, rose and sparkling wines, special
wines and wines of special quality. Fining
agents use optimization. Protein,
tartrate, oxidative, colour and metal
stability Principles and techniques for
physicochemical and microbiological
stabilization of wine. Enzymes in
winemaking. Bottling. Wood barrel
ageing.
Lesson period
First semester
Lesson period
First semester
Assessment methods
Esame
Assessment result
voto verbalizzato in trentesimi
Professor(s)
Reception:
By appointment
Sezione Industrie Agrarie - DiSTAM