The course aims to enhance the strategic importance of the processes of lawfulness education for the quality of democracies, with particular reference to social systems, such as the Italian one, characterized by a high presence of corruption and organized crime. Its premise is that the fight against corruption and crime must take place by operating on a vast system of cultural, elitist or widespread complicity. And that this work, instead of being peaceful, leads to conflict with models of thought, social customs and consolidated languages. To this end, it selects some analytical categories of social, legal and political thought, from Machiavelli to Gramsci, from Kelsen to Bobbio or Bourdieu, from Leopardi to Pasolini or Don Milani, to understand the mechanisms that concretely hinder the processes of education and civil progress. And it tries to draw the paths that, without any subjective reference to legality, contribute to his construction in daily life: from the attributions of meaning and value to the development of the values of solidarity and freedom or the sense of justice. In this context it contextualizes and studies educational movements, for active citizenship or anti-mafia, which have grown especially in the youth world and which appear to be potential carriers of a new public ethic as well as a renewed theory of conflict and civil modernization.
The course aims to provide an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the weaknesses and ambiguities of the Italian "public spirit", and the skills to recognize in one's own time the attitudes and mentalities that can positively or negatively influence the relations between civil culture and criminal phenomena.
In the first part the course, through an experimental and interactive approach, develops a reflection on the general relationship between educational processes and the quality of social systems, with particular reference to the values of freedom, responsibility and democracy. It analyzes the ethical, cultural and psychological factors of mass that influence the public spirit in the Italian social and institutional context, indicating legality as a great unresolved issue in national history. The second part of the course studies the path taken in Italy by the lawfulness education movement since the end of the 20th century. It explains the birth of this movement, its close relationship with some significant social traumas, especially linked to the aggression of criminal organizations towards institutions and civil coexistence, and the theoretical and practical approaches it has nurtured. Going from the "street masters" of Naples to the different anti-mafia didactic projects carried out in high schools or to re-socialization paths in prisons, the course progressively highlights the most innovative educational trends expressed by the recent Italian reality. It hosts witnesses to experiences carried out in the most problematic urban and social contexts to acquire new cognitive perspectives and new ideas for a general theory on the matter.