Organ physiopathology and histopathology

A.A. 2018/2019
Crediti massimi
Ore totali
BIO/09 MED/04 VET/03
Programma e organizzazione didattica

Edizione unica

Primo semestre
Prerequisiti e modalità di esame
Each course module is followed by a specific exam aimed to verify that the objectives of each module have been achieved. Exams will cover all the topics presented in each specific module.
The exam of the module "Organ Physiology" consists in an oral examination. For students participating in itinere to the lab tests, their personal outcome will concur to the final evaluation.
The exam of the module "Organ Physiopathology " consists in a written part (3 open questions and short answers (15-30 lines) for each question. Time allotted: 60 minutes) and a subsequent oral part (including a brief discussion of the student's written answers and 2 questions on different topics).
The exam of the module "Histopathology" is composed of 2 parts:
1. written part: 3 questions (example > Thrombosis: give a definition, describe the gross and histological findings and list the main causes). Short answer (5-10 lines) for each question. Time allotted: 30 minutes total.
2. oral part: after passing the written part, the oral part consists in a discussion mainly based on the written part of the candidate. Slides of lectures represent the study material that is enough to pepare for the exam. They are provided to the students on the Ariel platform as pdf files.

Final mark will be the weighted average of module grades.
Organ Physiology and Pathology
This module will face the basic mechanisms and processes regulating the function of most important organs in humans, such as liver, kidney, lung, skin, gut and nervous system.

Principal of general and cellular physiology
Membrane transports, toxicant metabolism, excretion
Liver physiology
Hepatic functions secretion, clearance
Kidney physiology
Renal filtration, excretion, secretion, clearance
Respiratory physiology
Lung functions, gas exchange, oxygen transport
Acid/Base control, renal and lung buffer systems
Skin physiology: absorption, metabolism
Nervous system physiology, potential, conduction
Autonomic, somatic, motor nervous system
Digestive system physiology
Gastric/gut, motility, secretion, digestion

Module of physiopathology

Principles of general and organ pathology
Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia
Inflammation (acute, chronic, mechanisms)
Molecular pathophysiology of cancerogenesis
Infectious agents and cancer
Chemical agents and cancer
Physical agents and cancer
Cancer staging
Liver diseases
Liver function assessment
Mechanisms of liver damage progression
Viral hepatitis
Non-alcoholic liver diseases
Toxic liver damage
Lung diseases
Infectious diseases
Obstructive diseases
Restrictive diseases
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
Respiratory failure
Kidney diseases
Kidney function assessment
Cystic renal diseases
Acute and chronic kidney failure
Kidney cancer
Kidney stones
Toxic kidney damage
Blood diseases
Biomarkers of blood diseases
Lymphomas (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin)
Endocrine disruptors (ED)
Principles of hormone function
Mechanisms of action of EDs
Pathological features of specific ED action
Materiale didattico e bibliografia
- Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, Author John E. Hall, Ed. Saunders, ISBN 9781455770052
- Human Physiology, L. Sherwood, ISBN-13: 978-1133104551
- Human Physiology: an integrated approach (7th ed. ), D.U. Silverthorn, ISBN-13: 978-0321981226
Lab of Comparative Histopathology
1. Introduction (1 hour)
· Introduction to the course
· Veterinary pathology: an introduction
· In vivo studies in laboratory animals: the role of pathology
2. General anatomic pathology (6 hours)
· Malformations
· Lesions due to physical agents
· Lesions due to chemical agents
· Nutritional diseases
· Modification of cellular growth
· Degeneration, distrophy, apoptosis, necrosis
· Pathological mineralization and pigmentation
· Circulatory disturbances
· Inflammation
· Tumors
3. Techniques in histology (2 h)
· Necropsy
· Sampling, fixation and processing for histopathology
· Special stainings in histopathology
· Immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM)
· Scoring of lesions
· Digital image analysis (DIA)
4. Animal models (1 h)
· Models of cancer
· Models of angiogenesis
· Models of metastasis
· Models of inflammation
5. Spontaneous pathology of laboratory animals (1 h)
6. Special pathology (4 h)
· Liver
· Kidney
· Lung
· Intestine

Program of practical
1. Examination of hisytological slides at the microscope (8 hours)
2. Digital image analysis (2 hours)
3. Visit to a laboratory (6 hours)
Moduli o unità didattiche
Lab of Comparative Histopathology
Laboratory individual activity: 16 ore
Lectures: 16 ore

Organ Physiology and Pathology
: 16 ore
Lectures: 48 ore

dal Lunedì al Venerdì, previo appuntamento
Via Balzaretti 9, Piano 3A
su appuntamento
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologioche e Biomolecolari
Lunedì 10-12
Anatomia patologica, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Via Celoria 10, Milano