ENDOCRINOLOGY: the endocrinology module is designed to teach the students the appropriate skills to diagnose patients with endocrine disorders. The students will also learn to identify the typical and atypical features of endocrine disorders, their presentation, clinical course and expected outcome. The students will also improve their ability to interpret endocrine tests and manage acute and chronic conditions. GASTROENTEROLOGY: the gastroenterology module addresses disorders and diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract, including the Liver and the Pancreas. This will be obtained by means of lectures covering, in a systematic approach, all disease states from pathophysiology to clinical presentation and diagnostic work-up; these topics will also be covered by problem-based sessions and case studies, to make students familiar with clinical presentation and differential diagnosis of GI diseases. RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE: the radiology and nuclear medicine modules are designed to address the imaging issues related to the clinical topics of endocrinology and gastroenterology. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY: the clinical biochemistry module is designed to introduce and interpret the laboratory tests used to diagnose and monitor endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders. MICROBIOLOGY: the clinical module is aimed to define the role, the pathogenic mechanism and the laboratory methods available for rapid diagnosis of the gastrointestinal and endocrine diseases (including the liver) related etiology agents. This module will include among others the focus on H. pylori, viral hepatitis, mainly HCV and HBV, microbiome definition and its impact on both gastrointestinal and endocrine system. PATHOLOGY: The first part of the course will focus on the Pathology of the Endocrine System. Neoplastic proliferations of the pituitary gland (adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinoma) will be discussed in detail together with tumors and tumors-like lesions of the suprasellar region. The pathology of the thyroid gland will cover several important aspects such as the approach to the thyroid nodules (diagnostic procedures and differential diagnosis) and the thyroid tumors. Pathological classification, pathogenetic mechanisms, histological features of the most frequent thyroid tumors will be discussed in detail. The pathology of the parathyroid glands and of the adrenal gland will focus of the neoplastic proliferations (adenoma, carcinoma and pheocromocytoma). Finally, pathological classification and prognostic markers of the neuroendocrine tumors will be also considered. The second part of the course will deal with the Pathology of the Gastrointestinal tract. Aetiologies, pathogenetic mechanisms and morphological changes of non-neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract will be examined with particular reference to Barrett esophagus, gastritis, celiac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases. Aetiologies, pathogenetic mechanisms, morphological changes, prognostic and predictive factors of the neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract will be extensively discussed, including esophageal, gastric and intestinal tumors. Molecular pathology, immunopathology, and clinically relevant biological features of these tumors will be the topic of a specific lesson. Moreover, the course will consider pathological changes of the liver in the course of liver hepatitis and cirrhosis, together with tumors and tumor-like lesions. Finally, both inflammatory and neoplastic conditions of the pancreas, together with cutting-edge molecular studies, will be discussed in detail.