Genetics

A.A. 2019/2020
9
Crediti massimi
80
Ore totali
SSD
BIO/18
Lingua
Inglese
Obiettivi formativi
L'insegnamento si propone di fornire agli studenti i principi fondamentali della genetica formale, molecolare e di popolazioni, al fine di fornire adeguate capacità di comprensione e approfondimento dei complessi meccanismi biologici.
Risultati apprendimento attesi
Alla fine del corso, lo studente acquisirà:
- terminologia e concetti di base di genetica, citogenetica e genetica molecolare;
- capacità di formulare ipotesi sulla trasmissione ereditaria di caratteri biologici;
- utilizzo di metodologie statistiche per l'analisi dei dati e per la verifica di ipotesi;
- capacità di interpretare alberi genealogici;
- conseguenze di mutazioni a livello genomico, cromosomico e genico;
- conoscenza dei principali meccanismi di controllo dell'espressione genica in procarioti ed eucarioti;
- applicazione dell'analisi genetica a problemi di genetica di popolazioni.
Programma e organizzazione didattica

Single session

Responsabile
Periodo
Primo semestre
Programma
- Physical basis of heredity. Chromosomes, mitosis, meiosis and the biological cycles of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Cell cycle. Introduction to DNA replication.
- Transmission of characters. Mendelian inheritance: segregation and independent assortment of characters. Multiple alleles. Statistical processing of Mendelian segregation. Analysis Mendelian inheritance in man: pedigrees. Blood groups and denial of paternity. Sex-linked inheritance. Genetic determination of sex.
- Chromosome theory of inheritance, linkage and recombination. Meiotic crossing-over. Mapping of genes in diploid organisms: map distance, interference. Mitotic crossing-over and mosaics.
- Function of the gene: one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. Interaction between genes. Complementation. Intragenic recombination.
- Genetics of microorganisms. Bacteria: mutants and their selection. Plasmids. Bacteriophages: virulent and temperate phages. Transfer of genetic material between bacteria by transformation, conjugation, and transduction.
- Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes.
- Introduction to transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Translation, genetic code and its characteristics.
- Changes in the structure of the genome. Gene mutations: molecular basis of mutations and their frequency.
Reversion and suppression. Chromosomal mutations: deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations.
- Genomic mutations: euploidy and aneuploidy. Autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy.
- Introduction to DNA replication.
- Mutagenesis and principal mechanisms of DNA repair.
- Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes: example of the lactose and tryptophan operons in Escherichia coli.
- Manipulation of the genetic material. Restriction endonucleases. Cloning vectors. Cloning of genes.
- Population Genetics. Genetic structure of populations. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Forces that change gene frequencies in populations: mutation, assortative mating, selection, migration and genetic drift.
- Epigenetics. Chromatin structure. Modifications of DNA and histones.
Esercitazioni
The course is completed with 16 hours of theoretical exercises, in which notions discussed in class will be applied and detailed, through the resolution of genetic problems.
Informazioni sul programma
Vedi pagina web
Propedeuticità
Cytology and Histology
Prerequisiti
A good knowledge of biology is required
The exam will assess the student's ability to apply the concepts learnt during the course. The exam is written and consists of an open question, the resolution of genetic problems and multiple choice questions. The questions cover the entire subject of the course. Time available: two hours.
Metodi didattici
Traditional modes of delivery, accompanied by slide show.
Attendance: recommended.
Materiale di riferimento
- Snustad e Simmons - Principi di Genetica - V ed. - EdiSES 2014
- Russell - Genetica -- IV ed. - Pearson - 2014
- Griffiths et al - Genetica - VII ed. - Zanichelli 2013
Exercises, which are performed during the hours of tutorials, will be provided to students attending the lessons.
BIO/18 - GENETICA - CFU: 9
Esercitazioni: 16 ore
Lezioni: 64 ore
Siti didattici
Docente/i
Ricevimento:
Venerdì ore 16,30
Dipartimento Bioscienze Via Celoria 26