Cells, molecules and genes 1

A.A. 2020/2021
7
Crediti massimi
84
Ore totali
SSD
BIO/11 BIO/13 BIO/17
Lingua
Inglese
Obiettivi formativi
Cell, Molecules and Genes 1 course addresses the basic cellular and molecular biology processes as well as of the consequences of their pathological alterations. The importance of approaches of molecular biology as diagnostic and/or therapeutic tools is underlied. The module of molecular biology provides students with a deep knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the main processes of the flow of genetic information and their possible involvements in pathological conditions. The studets is introduced to the approaches of molecular biology useful to perform biomedical research, diagnose the molecular consequences of genetic mutations and/or develop novel therapeutic approaches and the application of molecular biology for the treatment of specific human disorders is presented in dedicated seminars.
The Biology module provides insights into the cell life cycle, the models that are used in biomedical and preclinical research from cells to animals with a focus on stem cells and their use, not only as models but also as fundamental tools in regenerative medicine. Cell communication and its relevance in the control of fundamental cellular processes like cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and cell death are analyzed in depth and the contribution of impaired cell communications to human pathologies will be examined The module of Histology and Embryology focuses on cytology and will describe the organization of the human body at the cellular level, by describing cells, cell ultrastructure, and the related functional aspects
Risultati apprendimento attesi
Students are expected to achieve knowledge on:
- the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;
-the communication mechanisms between cells, signal transduction within cells, replication regulation, stem cell formation, cell death and neoplastic transformation;
-the different mechanisms of receptor activation and their regulation with the aim of understanding the intracellular signaling pathways and their impact on the cell physiology;
-the structure and function of the main cellular macromolecules;
-the main cellular and animal models used to understand the basic cellular mechanisms and to model human pathologies;
-the molecular basis of genetic information maintenance (replication and repair), its expression and regulation (transcription, transcription maturation, protein synthesis, epigenetics);
- the main molecular biology techniques useful for analyzing the DNA sequence, studying gene expression, even at a global level;
-the main techniques of genetic engineering;
-the importance of molecular biology for the diagnosis and treatment of some human pathologies.
-the cell ultrastructure, the morphology and the structure of organelles and their main functions
Programma e organizzazione didattica

Edizione unica

Responsabile
The teaching, given the current health situation, will be carried out entirely at a distance.
Prerequisiti
There are no specific pre-requirements for the admission to the Cells Molecules and Genes 1 course
Modalità di verifica dell’apprendimento e criteri di valutazione
Students' knowledge is assessed in two separate stages.
First stage consists in a multiple choice written exam covering the Histology and Embryology module. The professors or the IMS office inform the students about the results of the test via email.
Students that have passed this part are accepted to an oral exam testing knowledge in cellular and molecular biology. Exam questions focus exclusively on topics covered in class that are reported in the syllabus. The final grade is the weighted average of the two oral examinations and the written exam.
The exam is deemed to be passed successfully if the final grade is equal to or higher than 18/30. In the event of a full grade (30/30) honors (lode) may be granted.
Registration to exams through SIFA is mandatory.
Histology and embryology
Programma
Lecture 1. A journey through the cell: from outside to cell compartments.
Lecture 2-3. Vesicle trafficking. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. Mitochondria.
Lecture 4. The cytoskeleton.
Lecture 5. A journey through the cell: from the nucleus to the cell cycle. Introduction to tissues.
Lecture 6. Special topic: Cell morphology and structure: basic principles in determining cell phenotype.
Metodi didattici
· Lectures
· Case study discussion
· Seminars
Materiale di riferimento
· Alberts B. et al. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. Garland Science
· Lodish H. et al. MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY. W.H. Freeman & Company
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Biology
Programma
Lectures 1-2. The organization of living matter and the structural framework of the cell. Structure and functions of pro- vs. eukaryotic cells. Conservation of developmental programs among different species.
Lectures 3-4. Experimental models in cell biology. Cell models and organisms for the study of biological phenomena.
Lectures 5-6. The stem cell and its relevance for studying pathogenesis of diseases.
Definition of stemness. Identification of master regulators of stem cell pluripotency. The induced pluripotent stem cell.
Lectures 7-8. Signal transduction. Cell membrane structure. Nature of intercellular communication and receptors. Second messengers.
Lecture 9. The cell cycle. Cell cycle phases. Regulation of cell cycle by extracellular stimuli. Cell cycle checkpoints. Role and regulation of cyclins.
Lecture 10. Cell death. Differences between necrosis and apoptosis. Milestones in apoptosis research. Roles of apoptosis. Molecular regulation of apoptosis. Caspases. The apoptosome. Extrinsic death pathway.
Lecture 11. Oncogenes and cancer. Classes of oncogenes. Mechanisms of proto-oncogenes activation. Chromosomal alterations and cancer. Multiple mutations in cancer progression. Tumor suppressor genes
Lecture 12. Synthesis, folding and protein traffic and degradation. The quality control of proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. Folding enzymes and chaperons. The ubiquitin/proteasome system and autophagy
Metodi didattici
· Lectures
· Case study discussion
· Seminars
Materiale di riferimento
· Alberts B. et al. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. Garland Science
· Lodish H. et al. MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY. W.H. Freeman & Company
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Molecular biology
Programma
Lectures 1-2. Structure of nucleic acids: a quick overview of the main experiments that resulted fundamental for understanding their structure and of the techniques useful for their purification and analysis.
Lecture 3. The structure of proteins and the techniques useful for their purification and analysis.
Lecture 4. Genes and genomes: organization and function.
Lectures 5-8. Methods in molecular biology: principles and applications.
Lecture 9. Transcription in prokaryotes: molecular mechanisms.
Lecture 10. Transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes and the lactose operon as a paradigm of negative and positive regulation.
Lectures 11-12. Transcription in eukaryotes: the factors and molecular mechanisms involved.
Lecture 13. RNA processing and its involvement in human health.
Lecture 14. DNA assembly in chromosomes and the chromatin structure.
Lecture 15. Epigenetics (I): DNA methylation in physiological and pathological conditions.
Lecture 16. Epigenetics (II): the histone code hypothesis and how an aberrant chromatin structure can induce human disorders; non-coding RNAs as regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and their relevance in human health.
Lectures 17-18. Protein synthesis: its protagonists and the involved molecular mechanisms.
Lectures 19-20. Main molecular mechanisms by which the genetic information can be preserved: DNA replication and repair.
Seminars. The last 4 lectures will consist in 4 seminars of biomedical research useful to understand how molecular biology can be used to identify therapeutic approaches for human disorders. Particular emphasis will be given to gene therapy, cell therapy and in silico studies for the treatment of neurological or hematological disorders.
Metodi didattici
· Lectures
· Case study discussion
· Seminars
Materiale di riferimento
· Alberts B. et al. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. Garland Science
· Lodish H. et al. MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY. W.H. Freeman & Company
· Ross and Pawlina Histology A Text and Atlas - With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Moduli o unità didattiche
Biology
BIO/13 - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA - CFU: 2
Lezioni: 24 ore

Histology and embryology
BIO/17 - ISTOLOGIA - CFU: 1
Lezioni: 12 ore

Molecular biology
BIO/11 - BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE - CFU: 4
Lezioni: 48 ore

Docente/i
Ricevimento:
per appuntamento - contattare maura.francolini@unimi.it
Via Vanvitelli, 32 - 20129 Milano Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale
Ricevimento:
previo appuntamento da concordare via e-mail
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, via Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milano