Functions

A.A. 2020/2021
28
Crediti massimi
344
Ore totali
SSD
BIO/09 BIO/10 BIO/16 FIS/07
Lingua
Inglese
Obiettivi formativi
The course focuses on the mechanisms of body functions from cell to system and is organised around the central theme of homeostasis, i.e. how the body maintains the constancy of the internal environment needed for all cells and organs to function properly despite continuously changing external and internal demands. In order to accomplish this goal the course integrates different disciplines including Physiology, Neuroanatomy, Biochemistry; Chemistry and Physics providing the students the view of the complex interplay between macro- and micro functional levels acting in life processes.
The course is designed to highlight the integration between the different functional systems of the human body, in perspective how the functions related to the part of the body just discussed contribute to the homeostasis. The course is designed in 2 blocks. The first block will focus on the structure and function of the nervous system o the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the muscle and on mechanisms adopted by the human body to maintain the homeostasis. The second block will address the structure and function, in body's homeostasis, of cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive systems, liver, adipose tissue and on the biological response to stress. During the course, the message of the lectures will be reinforced and expanded by Practical Activities, Seminars, small group activities and training sessions.
Risultati apprendimento attesi
At the end of the course the studets are expected to achieve knowledge on:
-the structure and the function of the nervous system and of the endocrine system.
-mechanisms undelying the functions of cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive systems, liver, muscle, adipose tissue and on the biological response to stress.
-the dynamic integration of organs into apparatuses and the general functional control mechanisms in physiological conditions.
- the interaction and communication at the cellular, tissue, organ and system level in the organization of adaptive responses.
Programma e organizzazione didattica

Edizione unica

Responsabile
For the lessons of the 1st semester the teaching, given the current health situation, will be carried out entirely at a distance.
Prerequisiti
To take the Functions exam, students must have already taken all the exams of the first year (Fundamentals of Basic Sciences, Cells Molecules and Genes 1 and 2, Human Body).
Modalità di verifica dell’apprendimento e criteri di valutazione
Student assessment is based on a combination of written and oral exams.
A1 / A2 - written multiple choice test of Physics and Chemistry, referred to the topics of the 1st / 2nd semester. The outcome is a grade, from 18/30 to 30/30 (15 questions, 2 points for each correct answer).
B1 / B2 - written multiple choice test of Physiology and Neuroanatomy (B1) referred to the topics of the 1st semester, or Physiology and Biochemistry (B2), referred to the topics of the 2nd semester. Threshold for B1 and B2 is 75% of correct answers.
C1 / C2 - oral examination of Physiology and Neuroanatomy (C1) referred to the topics of the 1st semester, or Physiology and Biochemistry (C2), referred to the topics of the 2nd semester. The outcome is a grade, from 18/30 to 30/30.
A1 and B1, or A2 and B2 tests are administered simultaneously.
Students can take the written and the oral exams in the same session or in separate sessions. Once passed, the written tests are kept valid. However, only students who pass both A1 and B1 are allowed to take the C1 examination (the same for A2, B2, and C2).
No prescribed order between the 1st and 2nd semester's exams is required.
The final grade is the average of A1, C1, A2 and C2 weighted for the number of credits of each module (respectively 1.5; 10; 1.5 and 15). If the final grade is 30, than honours can be given with the consent of all the teachers.
In the C2 part of the exam, the student should be able to discuss skeletal muscle and locomotion, or the electrical behavior of the heart, dealt with in the first semester. Moreover, the student should be prepared to answer questions related to the following topics, that is a) the effects of orthosympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation on the tracheobronchial tree, b) carbon dioxide transfer through the alveolar capillary membrane, and c) reabsorption of gases from a corporeal cavity.
Registration through SIFA is mandatory.
Physiology
Programma
1ST SEMESTER SYLLABUS:
CONCEPT OF HOMEOSTASIS
Lecture 1 - Physiology. Internal environment and the cell: maintenance of the homeostasis
NERVOUS SYSTEM: A WIRED SYSTEM
Lecture 2 - Physics. Bioelectricity
Lecture 3 - Biochemistry. The ins and outs of ions in the nervous system
Lecture 4 - Physiology. Electrical signalling in the excitable cells I
Lecture 5 - Chemistry. Electrochemistry in cell perspective
Lecture 6 - Biochemistry. Neurotransmitters: special molecules in the nervous system
Lecture 7 - Physiology. Electrical signalling in the excitable cells II
Lecture 8 - Physiology. Neuronal target actions: neural integration; contraction; secretion
Lecture 9 - Physiology. Electrical signalling: is it exclusive language of the nervous system?
Lecture 10 - Physiology. Electrical signalling: the heart "funny" currents
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: A WIRELESS SYSTEM
Lecture 11 - Physiology. Hypothalamus-hypophysis axis: master and commander
Lecture 12 - Physiology. The Pituitary hormones: integrated metabolic effect
BUILDING UP ADAPTATION RESPONSE: DETECTING STIMULI COMING FROM EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS MANDATORY TO BUILD UP A CORRECT RESPONSE
SOMATOSENSORY INTERACTION WITH THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Lecture 13 -Anatomy. Sensory receptors, sensory modalities, and sensory pathways: man in energyland
Lecture 14 -Anatomy. Ascending pathways: to feel or not to feel?
Lecture 15 - Anatomy. Thalamus and Somatosensory cortex: beam me up, Scotty
Lecture 16 - Physiology. Coding sensory information: sensing the difference!
Lecture 17 - Physiology. Coding sensory information: danger area: stay alert!
SENSING THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT:
Lecture 18 - Physiology. The body's knowledge of itself: the seventh sense
Lecture 19 - Anatomy. Sensory pathways: representation of the main circuitry
THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SPECIAL SENSES
Lecture 20 - Physics. Waves
Lecture 21 - Physics. Sound waves
Lecture 22 - Physics. The physics of hearing
Lecture 23 - Anatomy. Special senses: hearing. If a tree falls into a forest, does it make a sound?
Lecture 24 - Physiology. Sounds familiar or not?
Lecture 25 - Physics. Light
Lecture 26 - Physics. The physics of vision
Lecture 27 - Anatomy and Physiology. Special Senses: the eye. How the brain pictures the world
Lecture 28 - Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology. The eye and the brain
Lecture 29 - Anatomy. Pathways from the retina: the optic pathways. Man as a visual creature
Lecture 30 - Physiology. What's wrong in this picture?
Lecture 31 - Anatomy. Special senses: position sense. Where is my head?
Lecture 32 - Physiology. Spinning around jumping on the lift: thank you vestibular system!
Lecture 33 - Anatomy. Special senses: graphic representation of special sensory pathways
Lecture 34 - Physiology. Look around
Lecture 35 - Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology. Perceiving the environment: the mechanisms of olfaction and taste
BUILDING UP ADAPTATION RESPONSE: HUMAN ACTION IN THE ENVIRONMENT
HUMAN MOTION: THE MUSCLE AND FORCE RECRUITMENT
Lecture 36 - Biochemistry. Motors and energy in the skeletal muscle
Lecture 37 - Physiology. Muscle mechanics: the force-length diagram during isometric contractions
Lecture 38 - Physiology. Muscle mechanics: the force-velocity diagram during isotonic contractions
Lecture 39 - Physiology. Moving eyes and building houses: different force requests
BUILDING UP ADAPTATION RESPONSES: FROM REFLEX TO BEHAVIOUR
1. SIMPLE ACTION-INTERACTIONS REFLEX AND LOCOMOTION
Lecture 40 - Physiology. The hierarchical motor system and the "independent" spinal cord. Reflexes
LOCOMOTION: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DRIVES A COMPLEX MACHINE
Lecture 41 - Physiology. Let's go for a walk
Lecture 42- Physiology. Biomechanics of locomotion: force platforms as ergometers
Lecture 43 - Physiology. From the spinal cord to the cortex
2. COMPLEX ACTION-INTERACTIONS
2a VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT: HUMAN HIGH SKILL:
Lecture 44 - Anatomy. Descending pathways: I like to move it, move it
Lecture 45 - Anatomy. Descending pathways: graphic representation of the main circuitry
Lecture 46 - Physiology. The human hand dexterity
Lecture 47 - Physiology. From tool use to playing piano: the higher order motor functions
Lecture 48 - Physiology. Principles of EEG recording: sleep and awake state; evoked potentials; event related potentials
Lecture 49 - Anatomy. Cerebellum: coordination and planning. The smooth one
Lecture 50 - Physiology. Cerebellum: the perfect timing
Lecture 51 - Anatomy. Basal ganglia: controlling, selecting, behaving, timing, planning The controversial one
Lecture 52 - Physiology. Basal ganglia: direct, indirect or... hyperdirect?
Lecture 53 - Anatomy. Basal ganglia and cerebellum: graphic representation of the main circuitry
Lecture 54 - Physiology. Growing dizzy and falling down!
Lecture 55 - Anatomy. Vascular supply to the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem. I depend on yO2u
Lecture 56 - Physiology. Access Denied: the Brain barriers
Lecture 57 - Biochemistry. The energetic side of the nervous system: glia and neurons in dialogue
2b BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE/ACTIVITIES: THE ROLE OF HYPOTHALAMUS
Lecture 58 - Physiology. From the autonomic actions to motivational states
Lecture 59 - Physiology. Tinkering with our biological clocks
THE MOST COMPLEX NEURO-ENDOCRINE INTERACTIONS: GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION
Lecture 60 - Physiology. Drop the child: I'm adult
Lecture 61 - Physiology. Reproduction: does it really contribute to homeostasis?
Lecture 62 - Physiology. Seminar
Lecture 63 - Physiology. Methodology of research in integrative physiology and assignment of paper for the journal club practical activity
Lecture 64 - Chemistry. Deepening chemical aspects of biological relevance
PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
Electrical nerve stimulation and Electroneurography
Electromyography, tetanus, spinal reflexes, corticospinal conditioning, fatigue
Sensory perception
EEG: evoked potentials; event related potentials
Journal club

2ND SEMESTER SYLLABUS
Lectures 1, 2 - Physics. Nuclear physics and ionizing radiation
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Lecture 3 - Physics. Nonviscous fluids
Lectures 4, 5 - Physics. Viscous fluids
Lecture 6 - Physics. Transport in fluids
Lecture 7 - Physiology. Effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system
Lecture 8 - Biochemistry. The dynamic composition and multifunctional role of blood plasma
Lecture 9 - Biochemistry. Erythropoiesis, mature erythrocytes and iron homeostasis
Lecture 10 - Biochemistry. Extracellular strengtheners and modulators of human tissues: the extracellular matrix and connective tissues
Lecture 11 - Biochemistry. Sustaining and moving the human body: bone and cartilages
Lecture 12 - Physiology. Smooth muscle
Lecture 13 - Biochemistry. The vascular wall: a specialized, dynamic barrier
Lecture 14 - Biochemistry. Hemostasis: protecting vascular integrity
Lecture 15 - Physiology. Blood flow
Lecture 16 - Physiology. Rheology of the blood and blood flow through elastic tubes
Lecture 17 - Physiology. Electrocardiography
Lecture 18 - Physiology. Cardiac cycle
Lecture 19 - Biochemistry. The heart: energy for beating
Lecture 20 - Physiology. Mechanics of the heart: PV loops
Lecture 21 - Physiology. Mechanics of the heart: Frank Starling mechanism
Lecture 22 - Physiology. Arterial pressure
Lecture 23 - Physiology. Measurement of cardiac output and physiological determinants of the shape of the cardiac function curve
Lecture 24 - Physiology. Microcirculation
Lecture 25 - Biochemistry. The skin: our boundary and brain on the outside
Lecture 26 - Physiology. Control of body temperature
Lecture 27 - Physiology. Hemodynamics of regional circulatory beds
Lecture 28 - Physiology. Mechanical coupling between the heart and the vessels: one pump model
Lecture 29 - Physiology. Mechanical coupling between the heart and the vessels: two pumps model. Cardiopulmonary integration
Lecture 30 - Physiology. Interactive lesson
Lecture 31 - Physiology. Should I stay or should I go? The Stress response.
GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
Lecture 32 - Physiology. Motility of the gastrointestinal system
Lectures 33, 34 - Biochemistry. Secreting into opposite sides: the exocrine and endocrine properties of the gastro-intestinal system
Lecture 35 - Biochemistry. The integrative role of the CNS in caloric homeostasis and food intake
Seminar - Biochemistry. Eating for health
Lecture 36 - Biochemistry. The liver I: the body's receiving and recycling central
Lecture 37 - Biochemistry. The liver II: detoxifying and waste disposing properties
Lecture 38 - Biochemistry. The endocrine pancreas
Lecture 39 - Biochemistry. There is more in the adipose tissue than fat: the white and brown sides of adipocytes
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Lecture 40 - Physiology. Spirometric and plethysmographic measurements
Lecture 41 - Physiology. Quasi-static properties of the respiratory system: pressure-volume curves
Lecture 42 - Biochemistry. Special molecules in the airways
Lecture 43 - Physiology. Quasi-static properties of the lungs and of the chest wall
Lecture 44 - Physiology. Dynamics of the respiratory system. The Campbell diagram
Lecture 45 - Physiology. Physiopathology of respiratory diseases
Lecture 46 - Physiology. Respiratory muscles
Lecture 47 - Physiology. Distribution of ventilation and of perfusion in the lungs
Lecture 48 - Biochemistry. The red blood cells: transport of oxygen (and more)
Lecture 49 - Physiology. Gas transport in the blood
Lecture 50 - Physiology. Gas exchange: the alveolar-capillary barrier
Lecture 51 - Physiology. Gas exchange: the ideal lung
Lecture 52 - Physiology. Gas exchange: the real lung
Lecture 53 - Physiology. Control of breathing
Lecture 54 - Physiology. Exercise
THE URINARY SYSTEM
Lecture 55 - Biochemistry. Molecular strategies for glomerular filtration and tubular specialization
Lecture 56 - Physiology. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration
Lecture 57 - Physiology. Renal Clearance
Lecture 58 - Physiology. Proximal tubule, Henle's loop and distal tubule
Lecture 59 - Physiology. Regulation of sodium and water balance
Lecture 60 - Physiology. Potassium homeostasis
Lecture 61 - Biochemistry. Calcium homeostasis.
Lecture 62 - Biochemistry. Phosphorus homeostasis.
Lecture 63 - Chemistry. Understanding acid-base balance in the human body (3h)
Lecture 64 - Chemistry. The buffer systems of the body (3h)
Lecture 65 - Physiology. Acid-base balance
Lecture 66 - Biochemistry. There is more than excretion in the kidney.
Lecture 67 - Physiology. Micturition
Lecture 68 - Physiology. Hemogasanalysis and interpretation acid-base and respiratory disorders
Lecture 69 - Physiology. Physiopathology of cardiac failure
Lecture 70 - Physiology. Open lesson
Lecture 71 - Physiology. Step 1 USMLE training - part 1
Lecture 72 - Physiology. Step 1 USMLE training - part 2
PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
Cardiovascular research
ECG
Measurement of arterial blood pressure at rest and during exercise
Pulmonary volumes and lung mechanics
Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Dead space
Mechanical ventilation
Arterial blood gases analysis and acid-base disorders: clinical cases
2 Case studies of biochemistry
4 PBL (2 physiology, 2 biochemistry)
Metodi didattici
Lectures, seminars, PBL, case studies, journal clubs and practical activities.
Materiale di riferimento
· D Purves, GJ Augustine, D Fitzpatric, WC Hall, AS LaMantia, JO McNamara, LE White, NEUROSCIENCE (5th ed) Sinauer 2012.
· E Kandel, T Jessell, J Schwartz, S Siegelbaum, AJ Hudspeth, PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL SCIENCE (5th ed) McGraw Hill 2012.
· JB West, AM Luks WEST'S RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY THE ESSENTIALS (10th ed) Wolters Kluwer 2015.
· D Eaton, J Pooler VANDER'S RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8th ed) McGraw Hill 2013.
· RE Klabunde CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS (2nd ed) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2012.
· JE Hall GUYTON AND HALL TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY (13th ed) Saunders 2015
Biochemistry
Programma
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Metodi didattici
Lectures, seminars, PBL, case studies, journal clubs and practical activities.
Materiale di riferimento
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
Chemistry and introductory biochemistry
Programma
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Metodi didattici
Lectures, seminars, PBL, case studies, journal clubs and practical activities.
Materiale di riferimento
· Devlin T.M. Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations. 7th ed. revised, 2019.
· Lieberman M. and Marks A. "Marks' basic medical biochemistry: a clinical approach" 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018.
· Baynes J., Dominiczak M.H. Medical biochemistry. 5th edn, 2018, Elsevier.
Anatomy
Programma
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Metodi didattici
Lectures, seminars, PBL, case studies, journal clubs and practical activities.
Materiale di riferimento
· Beckstead RM. A survey of medical neuroscience. Springer-Verlag, 1995.
· Brodal P. The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press; 5th ed, 2016.
· Burt AM. Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Saunders, 1st ed, 1993.
· Chusid JG. Correlative Neuroanatomy & Functional Neurology. Appleton & Lange, 19th ed, 1986.
· Haines DE. Neuroanatomy in Clinical Context: An Atlas of Structures, Sections, Systems, and Syndromes. Wolters Kluver, 9th ed, 2014.
· Parent A. Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 9th ed, 1996.
Medical physics
Programma
The course is based on a strong integration of different disciplines, thus the program of the single disciplines cannot be extracted form the program of the whole course which is reported in module Physiology.
Metodi didattici
Lectures, seminars, PBL, case studies, journal clubs and practical activities.
Materiale di riferimento
· Alan Giambattista and Betty Richardson and Robert Richardson, Physics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2016.
Moduli o unità didattiche
Anatomy
BIO/16 - ANATOMIA UMANA - CFU: 3
Lezioni: 36 ore

Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA - CFU: 6
Lezioni: 72 ore

Chemistry and introductory biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHIMICA - CFU: 1
Lezioni: 12 ore

Medical physics
FIS/07 - FISICA APPLICATA (A BENI CULTURALI, AMBIENTALI, BIOLOGIA E MEDICINA) - CFU: 2
Lezioni: 24 ore

Physiology
BIO/09 - FISIOLOGIA - CFU: 16
Esercitazioni: 32 ore
Lezioni: 156 ore
Problem Based Learning: 12 ore
Turni:
Gruppo 1
Docente: Pecchiari Matteo Maria
Gruppo 2
Docente: Pecchiari Matteo Maria
Gruppo 3
Docente: Pecchiari Matteo Maria
Gruppo 4
Docente: Fornia Luca
Gruppo 5
Docente: Fornia Luca

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