Justice and international affairs

A.A. 2022/2023
6
Crediti massimi
40
Ore totali
SSD
SPS/01
Lingua
Inglese
Obiettivi formativi
The course focuses on topics and questions currently at the centre of the philosophical debate on global justice. On the one hand, the course aims at familiarizing students with the basic notions and concepts crucial to make sense of questions of distributive justice as well as with the major conceptions of justice developed for the domestic level. On the other hand, the course intends to offer clues for appreciating the peculiarity of the global domain, the specific challenges connected to extending requirements of justice beyond domestic contexts, and the key arguments for and against such an extension.
Risultati apprendimento attesi
Knowledge and understanding: Students are expected to acquire a clear understanding about the key notions and concepts employed in the philosophical debate concerning distributive justice. Students are also expected to acquire in-depth knowledge concerning the major approaches to distributive justice developed for the domestic domain and to understand their assumptions and their implications for the debate on global justice. Moreover, students are expected to gain familiarity with the peculiarity of the global domain, with the challenges connected to extending requirements of justice beyond domestic contexts and with arguments for and against such an extension.
Applying knowledge and understanding: At the end of the course, students are expected to be able to apply their acquired knowledge and competences in the field of distributive justice and global justice to issues animating public debates. To this end, the course offers several occasions for in-depth class discussion, which will provide a suitable space for debating the relevance and import of the philosophical notions and approaches under examination with respect to more concrete issues and questions. Moreover, the course focuses on topics currently at the centre of public debate - such as migration and climate change - that are precisely meant to increase students' understanding about how to use abstract and general philosophical arguments to tackle more specific problems.
Making judgements: Thanks to the structure of the course and the selected readings, students are expected to increase their propensity for autonomous judgment. To this end, students will be required to read and examine essays providing opposing arguments (e.g. one essay for and one essay against a certain conception of justice) or essays endorsing different theoretical and methodological approaches. Students will be therefore introduced to a plurality of perspectives and this is expected to improve their capacity to adjudicate among conflicting arguments by autonomously assessing their relative merits and limits. Moreover, the bulk of the course will consist in the analysis of philosophical arguments - of their premises and their internal structure - and students will be required to critically examine the arguments at stake, thus further enhancing their capacity to autonomously judge their validity.
Communication: Students are expected to acquire familiarity with the argumentative strategies endorse in philosophical debates, which offer insights on how to elaborate consistent arguments or proposals and on how to effectively defend them and which are therefore functional to improve students' communication skills by. Moreover, students will be required to summarize and discuss complex arguments in a clear and effective way both orally - through in-class presentations - and in written form, thus having a further opportunity to strengthen their communication skills. For attendant students, similar skills are expected to be enhanced also through class discussions, which are meant to provide students with the opportunity to improve their argumentative capacities by engaging with arguments proposed by their classmates.
Programma e organizzazione didattica

Edizione unica

Responsabile
Periodo
Secondo trimestre

Programma
The course addresses issues of distributive justice with a special focus on the global dimension.

The course will provide a preliminary overview of the basic notions and concepts necessary to understand questions of distributive justice. Particular attention is paid to the notions of equality and justice and to the different conceptions of similar notions. The course will also provide insights concerning the major contemporary approaches in the field of distributive justice developed for the domestic level and on the relevant grounds to compare them. More precisely, the focus will be on Rawlsian liberal egalitarianism, luck-egalitarianism, and libertarianism.

On a similar background, the course will address the debate on global justice. The course will offer insights for appreciating the peculiarity of the global domain, for familiarizing with the specific challenges connected to extending requirements of justice beyond domestic contexts, and for comprehending the main arguments for and against such an extension. The course will also illustrate different approaches to inequalities at the global level and it will focus on justice-related questions concerning poverty, migration, climate change and health.

Syllabus for attendant students:

- Lecture 1: Justice and equality
- Lecture 2: The Rawlsian paradigm
- Lecture 3: Luck egalitarianism
- Lecture 4: Libertarianism
- Lecture 5: Presentations and class discussion on "The Rawlsian paradigm"
- Lecture 6: Presentations and class discussion on "Luck-Egalitarianism"
- Lecture 7: Presentations and class discussion on "Libertarianism"
- Lecture 8: From domestic to international domains: resources and interdependence
- Lecture 9: Presentations and class discussion on "From domestic to international domains: resources and interdependence"
- Lecture 10: Pro and against global justice
- Lecture 11: Presentations and class discussion "Pro and against global justice"
- Lecture 12: Global poverty: negative and positive duties
- Lecture 13: Presentations and class discussion "Global poverty: negative and positive duties"
- Lecture 14: Migration: close v. open borders
- Lecture 15: Presentations and class discussion "Migration: open v. closed borders"
- Lecture 16: Justice and climate change
- Lecture 17: Presentations and class discussion "Justice and climate change "
- Lecture 18: Global health issues
- Lecture 19: Presentations and class discussion "Global health issues"
- Lecture 20: Recap lecture

Please note: The previous syllabus is provisional. The syllabus will be fine-tuned at the beginning of the course, and its final version, with more precise indications about the relevant dates, will be available on the Ariel website of the course.
Prerequisiti
No specific preliminary knowledge is required to fruitfully attend the course or take the exam.
Metodi didattici
The course combines lessons, students' presentations, and class discussion.
Materiale di riferimento
The exam material is different for 1. attendanting students and 2. non-attending students


1. ATTENDING STUDENTS

For attendant students, the exam material is organized with reference to the topics included in the syllabus. Readings are expected to be completed in advance of the relevant session devoted to presentations and class discussion.

· Justice and Equality
- Carter, I. (2012) "Equality", in A. Besussi (ed.), A Companion to Political Philosophy. Methods, Tools, Topics, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 161-170.
- Arneson, R. (2007), "Equality", in R. Goodin, P. Pettit and T. Pogge (eds.), A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 583-611.

· The Rawlsian Paradigm
- Rawls, J. (1971), A Theory of Justice, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press: §§ 1-6, 11, 20-22, and 24-25 (pp. 3-33, pp. 60-65, pp. 118-130, pp. 136-150).

· Luck Egalitarianism
- Cohen, G.A. (2006), "Luck and Equality: A Reply to Hurley", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 72(2): 439-446.
- Tan, K.C. (2008), "A Defense of Luck Egalitarianism", Journal of Philosophy, 105(11): 665-690.

· Libertarianism
- Nozick, R. (1974), Anarchy, State, and Utopia, New York: Basic Books: pp. ix-xiv, pp. 26-35, pp. 149-164, and pp. 167-174.
- Vallentyne, P. (2009), "Left-Libertarianism as a Promising Form of Liberal Egalitarianism", Philosophic Exchange, 39(1): 56-71.

· From domestic to international domains: resources and interdependence
- Beitz, C. R. (1979), Political Theory and International Relations, Princeton: Princeton University Press: Part 3 - International Distributive Justice, Section 1 "Social Cooperation, Boundaries, and the Basis of Justice", Section 2 "Entitlements to Natural Resources", and Section 3 "Interdependence and Global Distributive Justice" (pp. 125-153).
- Rawls, J. (1999), The Law of Peoples, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press: §§ 1- 4 and 15-16 (pp. 11-43 and pp. 105-120).

· Pro and against global justice
- Caney, S. (2001), "Cosmopolitan Justice and Equalizing Opportunities", Metaphilosophy, 32(1/2): 113-134.
- Nagel, T. (2005) "The Problem of Global Justice", Philosophy & Public Affairs, 33(2): 113-147.

· Global poverty: negative and positive duties
- Singer, P. (1972) "Famine, Affluence, and Morality," Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1(3): 229-243.
- Pogge, T.W. (2002), "Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a Global Resources Dividend", in World Poverty and Human Rights, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 196-215.

· Migration: open v. closed borders
- Carens, J. (1987), "Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders", Review of Politics, 49(2): 251-273.
- Miller, D. (2005), "Immigration: The Case for its Limits", in A.I. Cohen and C.H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 193-206.

· Justice and climate change
- Shue, H. (1993), "Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions", in Climate Justice. Vulnerability and Protection, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 47-67.
- Attfield, R. (2019), "Vital Needs and Climate Change: Inter-Human, Inter-Generational and Inter-Species Justice", in P.G. Harris (ed.), A Research Agenda for Climate Justice, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 15-26.

· Global health issues
- Buchanan, A. and DeCamp, M. (2006), "Responsibility for Global Health", Theoretical medicine and bioethics, 27(1), 95-114.
- Beaton, E., Gadomski, M., Manson, D. and Tan, K.C. (2021), "Crisis Nationalism: To What Degree is National Partiality Justifiable during a Global Pandemic?, Ethic Theory Moral Practice, 24(1): 285-300.

For attendant students, the material for the written test includes all the reading assignments listed above plus the slides with the lecture notes, which will be available on the Ariel website of the course.

Please note: Readings which are difficult to find will be available on the Ariel website of the course.


2. NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS

The exam material for non-attendant students includes general readings - necessary for the first part of the written test - and specific readings organized into thematic groups to be prepared for addressing the second part of the written test

The exam material for non-attendant students includes general readings - to be prepared for the first part of the written test - and specific readings organized into thematic groups to be prepared for the second part of the test.

· GENERAL READINGS:
Familiarity with all readings listed below is necessary to address the questions included in the first part of the written test.

- Arneson, R. (2007), "Equality", in R. Goodin, P. Pettit and T. Pogge (eds.), A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 583-611.
- Maffettone, S. (2012) "Justice", in A. Besussi (ed.), A Companion to Political Philosophy. Methods, Tools, Topics, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 183-194.
- Blake, M. and Smith, P.T. (2015), "International Distributive Justice", in E.N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; available at the following link: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/international-justice/
- Brock, G. (2017), "Global Justice", The Stanford Encyclopedia of available at the following link: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/justice-global/
- Rawls, J. (1999), The Law of Peoples, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press: §§ 1, 2, 3, 4, 15 and 16 (pp. 11-43 and pp. 105-120).
- Nagel, T. (2005) "The Problem of Global Justice", Philosophy & Public Affairs, 33(2): 113-147.

· SPECIFIC READINGS:
Students are required to choose one topic from those listed below and prepare all and only the connected readings. Familiarity with such readings will be necessary address the relative thematic question proposed in the second part of the written test.

a. Global poverty: negative and positive duties
- Singer, P. (1972) "Famine, Affluence, and Morality," Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1(3): 229-243.
- Barry, B. (1982), "Humanity and Justice in Global Perspective", in J. Pennock and J. Chapman (eds.), NOMOS XXIV: Ethics, Economics and the Law, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf; now in Barry, B. (1989), Liberty and Justice, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 182-210.
- Pogge, T.W. (2002), "Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a Global Resources Dividend", in World Poverty and Human Rights, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 196-215.

b. Migration: open v. closed borders
- Carens, J. (1987), "Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders", Review of Politics, 49(2): 251-273.
- Miller, D. (2005), "Immigration: The Case for its Limits", in A.I. Cohen and C.H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 193-206.
- Ypi, L. (2008), "Justice in Migration: A Closed Borders Utopia?", Journal of Political Philosophy, 16(4): 391-418.

c. Justice and climate change
- Mollendorf, D. (2015), "Climate Change Justice", Philosophy Compass, 10(3), 173-186.
- Shue, H. (1993), "Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions", in Climate Justice. Vulnerability and Protection, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 47-67.
- Attfield, R. (2019), "Vital Needs and Climate Change: Inter-Human, Inter-Generational and Inter-Species Justice", in P.G. Harris (ed.), A Research Agenda for Climate Justice, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 15-26.

d. Global health issues
- Faden, R., Bernstein, J., and Shebaya, S. (2022), "Public Health Ethics", in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at the following link: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2022/entries/publichealth-ethics.
- Buchanan, A. and DeCamp, M. (2006), "Responsibility for Global Health", Theoretical medicine and bioethics, 27(1), 95-114.
- Beaton, E., Gadomski, M., Manson, D. and Tan, K.C. (2021), "Crisis Nationalism: To What Degree is National Partiality Justifiable during a Global Pandemic?, Ethic Theory Moral Practice, 24(1): 285-300.

Please note: Readings which are difficult to find will be available on the Ariel website of the course.
Modalità di verifica dell’apprendimento e criteri di valutazione
The exam structure is different for 1. attendant and 2. non-attendant students.

1. ATTENDING STUDENTS

Attending students will be assessed on the basis of their in-class presentations, and they will be required to sit for an in-class written test, which will be scheduled immediately after the end of the course. Please note: The written test at the end of the course will be the only one on the program for attending students.

For what regards presentations, students will be required to summarize and discuss the central arguments proposed in the assigned readings. The evaluation is intended to ascertain students' capacity to identify the relevant points of the texts under scrutiny, to reconstruct their argumentative structure and their conclusions. The evaluation is also meant to ascertain students' capacity to assess the internal coherence of the arguments at stake, to enlighten and critically examine their implications.

The written test comprises open questions, which are meant to ascertain the acquisition of appropriate knowledge and understanding of the reading assignments and of the topics addressed during classes. The written test is also meant to ascertain students' ability to establish connections between the various topics covered by the course and to comparatively assess different approaches and arguments.

Final grades will be awarded by weighting presentation and written test as follows:
- Presentation: 40 %
- Written test: 60 %


2. NON-ATTENDING STUDENTS

For non-attending students, the exam consists in one single written test, divided into two parts.

The first part of the written test will comprise open questions meant to ascertain the acquisition of appropriate knowledge and understanding of the topics addressed in the general readings as well as the students' capacity to establish connections between the various topics and to comparatively assess different approaches.

In the second part of the written test, there will be one question for each of the following topics: "Global poverty: negative and positive duties"; "Migration: open v. closed borders"; "Justice and climate change"; "Global health issues". Each of the questions will require to discuss different and competing arguments concerning the relative topic. Students will have to select one of the proposed questions, depending on the group of specific readings they have prepared. Indeed, the readings for the second part of the written test are divided into thematic groups, and students are required choose one topic of their interest and to prepare all and only the connected readings.
SPS/01 - FILOSOFIA POLITICA - CFU: 6
Lezioni: 40 ore
Docente/i
Ricevimento:
Lunedì, 17:00-18:30, in presenza; martedì, 10:30-12:00, online.
Non è necessario fissare un appuntamento. Il ricevimento si svolge alternativamente online (link Zoom: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89528504007) o in presenza (Dip. di Scienze sociali e politiche, II piano, stanza 205) secondo il calendario indicato