Human anatomy and histology

A.Y. 2018/2019
Overall hours
BIO/16 BIO/17
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student should
to know the methods and morphological survey tools
learn about the morphology of the cells and tissues of the human organism;
know the main mechanisms through which is realized the maturation of germ elements, fertilization and development of the human organism;
be able to observe, describe and identify the different organelles of the eukaryotic cell, the various tissues and their localization within the bodies; know: the organization of the human body, the shape and the seat of the organs of the various systems of the body and the main structural features that are the basis of organ functions
Expected learning outcomes
Acquire the knowledge of the morphology, microscopic and submicroscopic structure of cells and tissues, particularly with regard to those of the human organism; to know gametogenesis.
Describe the general architecture of the human body and the structure of the organs in relation to their functional role.
Know the basic use of the optical microscope for the observation of histological samples, prepared according to conventional methods.
Observe histological preparations, in order to discuss, describe and identify the morphological features of the various tissues and organs; demonstrate that the necessary knowledge for subsequent courses was acquired.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Modulo: Istologia
Course syllabus
· Main methods in histology: Tissue preparation (fixation, embedding, slicing,
staining). Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Light and electron microscopy.
· Epithelial tissue: structure, ultra structure, and major functions. Classification of Epithelia (simple
and stratified) and examples. Relations with the underlying connective tissue. Morphological and
functional cell polarity. Apical, lateral and basal domain and its specializations. Epithelial cell
· Glands: structure, ultrastructure.
Exocrine glands: classification criteria. Different mechanisms of secretion. Examples of exocrine
glands (based on different classification criteria).
Endocrine glands: classification criteria, mode of secretion and chemical nature of the secreted
hormone. Cytological and histological characters of the main endocrine glands: interstitial cells of
the testis and ovary, the islets of Langerhans, pituitary, adrenal cortex, corpus luteum,
parathyroid, thyroid.
· Sensory epithelia: general characteristics and examples.
· Connective tissue proper: structure and functions. Extracellular matrix: amorphous substance,
proteoglycans and glycoproteins; collagen, reticular and elastic fibers. Connective tissue cells:
fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells, adipose cells, mesenchymal stem cells.
Loose and dense connective tissue.
White and brown adipose tissue.
· Cartilage: structure and functions. Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.
· Bone tissue: compact and spongy architecture. General structure of bones. Microscopic
structure of bone lamellar and non-lamellar. Periosteum and endosteum. Bone matrix (the organic
and inorganic). Cells of bone tissue (osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts).
Bone formation: intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
· Blood: structure and functions. Plasma. Erythrocytes and platelets. Granulocytes (neutrophils,
eosinophils and basophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). Hemopoiesis: an
· Muscle tissue: structure and functions.
Skeletal muscle tissue, organization of striated muscle fiber, myofibrils and myofilaments.
Neuromuscular junction.
Cardiac muscle: organization of cardiac muscle fiber.
Smooth muscle.
· Nerve tissue: structure and functions. The neuron: ultrastructure of the cell body, axon and
dendrites. Axonal transport. Different types of neurons.
Unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers. Myelin sheath and myelination process. Synapses.
Glial cells of the PNS, CNS and microglia.
· General embryology: Oogenesis. Ovarian cycle. Uterine cycle. Spermatogenesis. Fertilization
and blastocyst implantation. Determination and totipotency of the blastomeres. Decidualization.
Formation of the three germ layers. Longitudinal and side folds. Derivatives of the three germ
Modulo: Anatomia Umana
Course syllabus
· General anatomy:
Anatomical position, the anatomical planes and the terms used to describe body movements.
General organization of the human body (body spaces).
General structure of the organs.
· Integumentary system:
Skin: general features and structure.
Skin appendages: general features.
Breast gland.
· Locomotor system:
Bones: structure and classification; osteogenesis; bones of the skull, trunk and limbs.
Joints: classification and structure; description of the main joints.
Muscles: general morphology and structure; tendons: morphology and structure; study of the
main muscles and muscular groups.
Walls of the head, throat, thorax, abdomen, and relative body spaces.
Limbs: general structure.
· Cardiovascular system:
Heart and blood vessels:
General structure.
Heart: morphology, position, structure.
Blood vessel structure.
Systemic and pulmonary circuits.
Major arteries and veins.
General organization of the arteries and veins in the head and neck, in the trunk, in the limbs, and
in organs.
Lymphatic system:
Lymphatic vessels.
Lympoid organs (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils): localization and structure.
Haematopioietic and haemocateretic organs.
· Digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine systems: general morphology,
localization, main anatomical relations, structure and morphofunctional aspects of the organs of
the different systems.
Ultrastructure of lung alveoli, nephron (renal corpuscle and air-blood barrier), liver (hepatocyte,
biliary capillary, Disse's space), lining epithelium of the small intestine (enterocytes and microvilli).
· Nervous system:
General aspects of the evolution of the neural circuits and their organization.
Central nervous system:
Major divisions, external morphological features and internal organization of the grey matter and
white matter.
General organization of the central nervous system: main ascending and descending pathways,
nuclei and cortical areas, cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Reticular formation, limbic system, hypotalamus and control of visceral activities: general
Peripheral nervous system: general principles of the somatic and visceral innervation.
Eye: general organization and structure.
Ear: general organization and structure.
Practice at the microscope: analysis and description at the light microscope of sections obtained
from tissues and organs of the different systems.
Modulo: Anatomia Umana
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Informal teaching: 8 hours
Lessons: 28 hours
Professor: Gagliano Nicoletta
Modulo: Istologia
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 3
Informal teaching: 8 hours
Lessons: 20 hours