The recruitment of researchers takes place by selection or by direct call.
The calls for applications are divided into two types based on the requested characteristics:
Type A fixed-term researchers (RTDA): recruited with a three-year contract that can only be extended once, for two years, after a positive evaluation of the teaching and research activities that have been carried out. Entry requirements: doctoral programme degree (PhD) or medical specialization diploma.
Type B fixed-term researchers (RTDB) – recruited with non-renewable three-year contracts, full-time only, with the possibility of transferring to associate professor (Article 24 paragraph 5), after the positive evaluation of the activities carried out. Access requirements (one of the following):
- the holder of a Type A researcher contract, or a research or post-doctoral fellowship, for at least 3 years, or holder of similar contracts and scholarships in universities abroad;
- have the Italian National Scientific Qualification (ASN) or a medical specialization diploma.
Online competition management and selection service for professors and researchers.
This is a form of direct recruitment that does not include calls from individual universities, but it is a nominative proposal that the university sends directly to the Ministry (Law 230/2005, Art. 1, paragraph 9).
Scholars can be recruited by direct call, who have:
- been permanently engaged abroad in research or teaching activities for at least three years, holding an equivalent academic position in a university or a research institution abroad. The call requires the consultation of the National Scientific Qualification Commissions (ASN);
- qualified for specific high-qualification research projects, funded by the European Union or by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and identified with a specific decree, after a positive opinion from ANVUR and CUN. For calls made within three years of winning the research project, consultation of the National Scientific Qualification Commissions (ASN) is not required.