Physical quantities, size and units of measurement, SI, extensive and intensive quantities, scalar and vector (mass, density, time, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration). Derivatives and integrals of simple functions (polynomials, trigonometric, exponential and logarithm functions) and their fundamental properties. Derivatives of vectors. Applications to kinematics (rectilinear and curvilinear motions, composition of motions, periodic motions), to radioactive decays.
Interactions, laws of dynamics. Translational equilibrium. Weight and gravitational force, contact force, tension, elastic force and laws of motion. Friction. Mechanical work. Kinetic energy theorem. Conservative forces. Potential energy. Total mechanical energy. Power. Impulse and momentum. Impulse theorem. System of material points and extended body. Rigid bodies. Articulated human body. Center of mass and center of gravity. Moments. Rotational equilibrium. Levers. Lever systems in the human body. Deformable bodies, elasticity, stress/strain relationship and Young's and Poisson's modulus.
Fluids. Pressure and density. Hydrostatic laws, Stevino, Pascal and Archimedes. Dynamics: flow rate and viscosity. Laminar flow. Leonardo's Theorem. Ideal fluids, Bernoulli's theorem and applications. Colligative properties. Real fluids. Speed profile, speed gradient. Poiseuille's law, hydraulic resistance. Complex hydraulic circuits, resistances in series and parallel. Turbulent regime, critical speed and Reynolds number. Non-Newtonian fluids and classification according to the tangential stress - speed gradient diagram. Rheological properties of blood. Approximate models for the description of the circulatory circuit and for the calculation of the mechanical and cardiac work. Surface phenomena, surface tension. Flat and curved fluid interfaces. Curvature pressure, Laplace's law. Surfactants. References to situations of medical interest, embolism, pulmonary alveoli, response of vessels in tension. Capillarity.
Waves. Harmonic oscillator. Propagation speed. Wave function. Wavelength and wave vector. Phase-shift, interference, constructive and destructive interference. Energy carried by a wave. Acoustic waves. Velocity of sound. Pressure wave. Power of an acoustic wave. Intensity and level of sound intensity far from the source. Audibility limit. The decibel scale. Ultrasounds and physical principles of ultrasound in diagnostic.
Thermology and thermodynamics. Thermodynamic variables, temperature. Perfect gas law. Kinetic theory of perfect gases, internal energy. Gas mixtures, partial pressures, Dalton's law. Physical solubility of gases in liquids, Henry's law, partial pressure, hyperbaric respiration. Solutions. Diffusion through a non-selective porous septum and free diffusion. I and II Fick's law. Osmotic pressure, Van't Hoff's law. Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure, effects in the capillary bed and dialysis.
Heat. Heat capacity and specific heat. State changes and latent heat. Heat flow. Conduction, convection, radiation. Wien's displacement law, irradiated power and source temperature, emissivity. Radiation balance for the human body, thermography.
System and environment, energy exchange. State and state functions. First law of thermodynamics. Heat and work. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Simple transformations of a perfect gas. Cyclical transformations. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot cycle. Entropy. Macroscopic and microscopic correlates of entropy. Thermodynamic potentials, free energy, chemical potential.
Electricity and magnetism. Electrical charge, fundamental properties. Electrostatic force, electric field generated by a point charge. Potential energy of a point charge system, potential. Energy considerations. Conductors and dielectrics. Induction, polarization. Movement of charges in solids and liquids. Electrophoresis, electrophoretic mobility. Electrical dipole. Electric current, power. Ohmic conductors, Ohm's laws, power for ohmic conductors, series and parallel resistors. Capacity. Capacitors, effect of a dielectric, stored energy. Capacitors in series and parallel. Process of charging and discharging a capacitor. References to the operation of defibrillators and pacemakers. Basics of transport of ions through membranes. Magnetic field, diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic field and currents, Oerstedt's experience, Lorentz's force, magnetic moment of a current loop, Biot and Savart's law. Variable magnetic fields, magnetic field flux, Faraday-Neuman-Lenz's law, induced currents.
Radiation and interactions with matter. Electromagnetic radiation. Wave equation for E and B. Poynting vector, intensity. Radiation spectrum. Radiation classification. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Coolidge tube and X-ray production. Bremsstrahlung. Radiation-matter interaction. Radiation absorption. Law of absorption. Linear absorption coefficients. Radioactive decay. Stable and radioactive isotopes. Beta and alpha decays. Basics on nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, and NMR imaging.
Prerequisites for admission
Admitted students pass an entrance test that covers the preliminary knowledge required by the course.