The course provides knowledge in the analysis of skeletal and cardiac cell metabolism during exercise, its regulation, and integration between muscle tissue and other organs/tissues; the course illustrates the biochemical aspects of adaptation to physical exercise, examines the use of measurable biochemical and clinical parameters in blood and urine; presents the mechanisms of genetic predisposition to motor activity.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire knowledge on the various energy substrates in muscles during exercise and their metabolic regulation in skeletal muscle. Students will learn the biochemical elements of adaptation to exercise and be able to select the biochemical/clinical(molecular parameters best suited to monitoring conditions related to sports; students will learn to interpret reference biochemical-clinical data in athletes and select the methods and field instruments for dosing the parameters; student will learn the most recent anti-doping methods.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
- Biochemical aspects of exercise - Metabolism of skeletal muscle Biochemical characteristics of skeletal muscle cells; use of ATP in muscle contraction; sources of muscle energy and type of muscle activity; classification of muscle fibers; generalities on muscle metabolism Anaerobic alactic acid metabolism: high-energy phosphates: metabolism and phosphocreatine Anaerobic lactic acid metabolism: substrate, metabolic pathways and regulation; myokinase reaction and AMP; lactate degradation Aerobic metabolism: substrates; metabolic pathways and regulation Factors in the regulation of muscle metabolism during physical activity - metabolism of cardiac muscle Biochemical characteristics of cardiomyocytes; cardiac metabolism; resting cardiac metabolism, stress cardiac metabolism; metabolic changes induced by oxygen deficiency - Metabolic integration between organs - Biochemical mechanisms involved in muscle adaption to physical activity
- Topics in clinical biochemistry - Characteristics, modes of execution, and evaluation of a laboratory test - Point-of-care-tests (POCT) - Routine clinical analysis in athletes and meaning of test results in relation to health/performance/adaptation to training - Effect of motor activity on blood parameters - Molecular tests, performance genes - Iron metabolism; laboratory diagnostics for preventing anemia in athletes - Blood doping: anti-doping test for detecting erythropoietin and its derivatives - Biological passport - Discussion of clinical cases of athletes; problem-solving exercises on topics covered during lessons in the lecture hall
Prerequisites for admission
Previous knowledge of: - Cell structure - Structure and role of macromolecules - Role of enzymes - Metabolic pathways Preparatory learning: Biology, chemistry, general biochemistry
Frontal lectures, group simulations, exercises
Di Giulio A., Fiorilli A., Stefanelli C. -Biochimica per le Scienze Motorie. -Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - Siliprandi N. & Tettamanti G.-Biochimica Medica. Strutturale, metabolica e funzionale.- Piccin - Slides available on Ariel
- Slide delle lezioni disponibili sul sito Ariel dell'insegnamento.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written, multiple choice exam (16 questions, 30 minutes duration) Grading criteria: understanding of biochemical mechanisms of adaptation to exercise and the use of energy substrates during exercise; ability to identify the biochemical/clinical/molecular parameters, the methods and field instruments best suited to monitor the conditions of sports and doping; ability to interpret biochemical/clinical/molecular data related to monitoring. Grades expressed in 30/30 points