Biology and Biochemistry

A.Y. 2019/2020
5
Max ECTS
50
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10 BIO/13
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- Knowledge of the biological processes at the molecular level, the structure, the properties and functions of biomolecules.
- Knowledge of the biochemical basis of pathological states.
- Knowledge of the human systematic biochemistry.
- Understanding the basics of molecular and cellular biology.
Expected learning outcomes
- The student should acquire adequate knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of chemistry, biochemistry, and biology.
- The student should be able to explain/describe the structure, functions and metabolism of the most important biological macromolecules, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates and their role in metabolic pathways.
- The student should be able to describe the eukaryotic cell both morphologically and functionally. In particular, the students should have acquired sufficient information to describe the process of protein synthesis, the regulation of gene expression and the biological variability induced by mutations and the recombination process.
- The student should be able to make assumptions based on genetic data provided as pedigrees or allele frequencies.
- The student should be able to integrate knowledge learned in specific courses of Biology and Biochemistry.
- The student should be able to expose and explain, in a simple but rigorous manner, the biological and biochemical processes that are the basis of life.
Course syllabus and organization

Sezione: Bosisio Parini

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
The prerequisites consist of chemical and biological knowledge needed to pass the entrance test to CdS.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final written exam is structured in:
Section i: 30 multiple choice questions on biochemistry (tot. 12 marks)
Section ii. 20 multiple choice questions on biology (tot. 12 marks)
Section iii: 10 multiple choice questions on genetics (tot. 6 marks)
The test results will be published on the ARIEL website of the course.
Biochimica
Course syllabus
Properties of water: Molecular structure and physical properties of water. Its effect on biomolecules. Effect of non-polar compounds on water.
Van der Waal's forces, ion- dipole, dipole-dipole interactions, London forces, hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding.
Ionic equilibria: Ionic product of water. Concept of acids and bases. pH scale, buffers.
Introduction to organic chemistry: Classification of organic compounds. Role and impact of organic chemistry on the cellular chemistry (biochemistry). Basic knowledge of structure and properties of compounds of biological interest.
Amino acids and proteins.
Amino acids: structure and general properties, classification and formulas, acid-base properties.
Proteins: the peptide bond, properties and structure, primary structure, secondary structure (helices, beta filaments and sheets), tertiary structure and quaternary structure.
Lipids, cell membranes, transport across the membranes.
Fatty acids, triacilglycerols, glycerophospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones.
Carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides (classification and stereoisomery), disaccharides, structural and storage polysaccharides.
Nucleotides and nucleic acids.
Structure and function.
Chemical reactions: energy conditions.
Chemical Kinetic: basic concepts, temperature dependence of reaction rates.
Enzymes: structure and function, general properties and classification, activation energy, kinetic parameters definition, regulation of enzyme activity.
Metabolism and Bioenergetics.
Basic concepts. High-energy compounds and free energy. Structure of ATP and ATP.
Phosphoryl group transfers and ATP. Biological oxidation-reduction reactions.
Concept map to depict the metabolism.
Overview of
Glucose catabolism: glycolysis. Citric acid cycle. Electron transport: the respiratory chain, the redox centres, cofactors, protein complexes and bioenergetics. Oxidative phosphorylation: ATP sintase structure-function.
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Biochemistry Module, and 30 hours in class for Biology and Genetic Module) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the student on the ARIEL website. The textbook is recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
M. V. Catani, I. Savini, P. Guerrieri, L. Avigliano "Appunti di biochimica" Ed.: Piccin.
R. Roberti, G. Alunni Bistocchi, C. Antognelli, V. N. Talesa "Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie" Seconda Edizione Ed.: McGrawHill.
M. Samara, R. Paroni "Chimica e Biochimica per le lauree triennali dell'area biomedica" Ed.: PICCIN
D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox "Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger" Quinta edizione. Ed.: Zanichelli.
Biologia applicata
Course syllabus
Biological evolution through natural selection: Darwin and Wallace.
Structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell: cellular compartmentalization; cell organelles; ribosomes; cytoskeleton; junctions; Matrix.
Structure and function of biological membranes: fluid mosaic model; transport through the membrane.
Cellular communication: mode of communication between cells.
Cell cycle and its regulation: phases of the cycle; control system; apoptosis; the cancer cell.
The reproduction of living things: asexual and sexual reproduction; mitosis, meiosis and their comparison; gametogenesis; fertilization; differentiation.
DNA replication: central dogma of biology; Meselson and Stahl experiment; replication at the molecular level; DNA damage repair.
Transcription: various types of RNA; RNA synthesis; maturation of messenger RNAs.
Translation and genetic code: genetic code and its properties; protein synthesis mechanism; post-translational modifications.
The eukaryotic genome: chromatin structure; the nucleosome; gene structure (intron-exons); control of gene expression.
Virus: structure; bacterial, animal and plant viruses; cell-virus interactions.
Human chromosomes and their modes of segregation during mitosis and meiosis
o Organization of DNA and chromatin in the chromosomes
o The equational division of somatic cells
o Reduction of germ cell division
o Gametogenesis and fertilization
The Mendelian laws that regulate the transmission of genes: correlation between genotype and phenotype
o From gene to protein and phenotype: relationship between genotype and phenotype
o Allelic interactions: dominant alleles, recessive alleles and codominance
o Law of character segregation and independent assortment principle
The modes of transmission of monogenic traits in humans
o Examples of Mendelian inherited monogenic pathologies (Cystic fibrosis, thalassemia, deafness)
o Autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance
o Penetrance and expressiveness, multiple alleles (blood groups ABO, Rh).
o Sex-related legacy
o Mitochondrial inheritance
o Genetic heterogeneity
o Family trees
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Biochemistry Module, and 30 hours in class for Biology and Genetic Module) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the student on the ARIEL website. The textbook is recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
Sadava, Hillis, Heller, Berenbaum "Elementi di biologia e genetica" Ed.: Zanichelli.
Campbell, Reece " Biologia & Genetica. Ed.: Pearson.
De Leo, Ginelli, Fasano " Biologia e Genetica". Ed.: Edises.
Biochimica
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Biologia applicata
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professors: Biasin Mara, Saulle Irma

Sezione: Don Gnocchi

Prerequisites for admission
The prerequisites consist of chemical and biological knowledge needed to pass the entrance test to CdS.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final written exam is structured in:
Section i: 30 multiple choice questions on biochemistry (tot. 12 marks)
Section ii. 20 multiple choice questions on biology (tot. 12 marks)
Section iii: 10 multiple choice questions on genetics (tot. 6 marks)
The test results will be published on the ARIEL website of the course.
Biochimica
Course syllabus
Properties of water: Molecular structure and physical properties of water. Its effect on biomolecules. Effect of non-polar compounds on water.
Van der Waal's forces, ion- dipole, dipole-dipole interactions, London forces, hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding.
Ionic equilibria: Ionic product of water. Concept of acids and bases. pH scale, buffers.
Introduction to organic chemistry: Classification of organic compounds. Role and impact of organic chemistry on the cellular chemistry (biochemistry). Basic knowledge of structure and properties of compounds of biological interest.
Amino acids and proteins.
Amino acids: structure and general properties, classification and formulas, acid-base properties.
Proteins: the peptide bond, properties and structure, primary structure, secondary structure (helices, beta filaments and sheets), tertiary structure and quaternary structure.
Lipids, cell membranes, transport across the membranes.
Fatty acids, triacilglycerols, glycerophospholipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones.
Carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides (classification and stereoisomery), disaccharides, structural and storage polysaccharides.
Nucleotides and nucleic acids.
Structure and function.
Chemical reactions: energy conditions.
Chemical Kinetic: basic concepts, temperature dependence of reaction rates.
Enzymes: structure and function, general properties and classification, activation energy, kinetic parameters definition, regulation of enzyme activity.
Metabolism and Bioenergetics.
Basic concepts. High-energy compounds and free energy. Structure of ATP and ATP.
Phosphoryl group transfers and ATP. Biological oxidation-reduction reactions.
Concept map to depict the metabolism.
Overview of
Glucose catabolism: glycolysis. Citric acid cycle. Electron transport: the respiratory chain, the redox centres, cofactors, protein complexes and bioenergetics. Oxidative phosphorylation: ATP sintase structure-function
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Biochemistry Module, and 30 hours in class for Biology and Genetic Module) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the student on the ARIEL website. The textbook is recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
M. V. Catani, I. Savini, P. Guerrieri, L. Avigliano "Appunti di biochimica" Ed.: Piccin.
R. Roberti, G. Alunni Bistocchi, C. Antognelli, V. N. Talesa "Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie" Seconda Edizione Ed.: McGrawHill.
M. Samara, R. Paroni "Chimica e Biochimica per le lauree triennali dell'area biomedica" Ed.: PICCIN
D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox "Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger" Quinta edizione. Ed.: Zanichelli.
Biologia applicata
Course syllabus
Biological evolution through natural selection: Darwin and Wallace.
Structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell: cellular compartmentalization; cell organelles; ribosomes; cytoskeleton; junctions; Matrix.
Structure and function of biological membranes: fluid mosaic model; transport through the membrane.
Cellular communication: mode of communication between cells.
Cell cycle and its regulation: phases of the cycle; control system; apoptosis; the cancer cell.
The reproduction of living things: asexual and sexual reproduction; mitosis, meiosis and their comparison; gametogenesis; fertilization; differentiation.
DNA replication: central dogma of biology; Meselson and Stahl experiment; replication at the molecular level; DNA damage repair.
Transcription: various types of RNA; RNA synthesis; maturation of messenger RNAs.
Translation and genetic code: genetic code and its properties; protein synthesis mechanism; post-translational modifications.
The eukaryotic genome: chromatin structure; the nucleosome; gene structure (intron-exons); control of gene expression.
Virus: structure; bacterial, animal and plant viruses; cell-virus interactions.
Human chromosomes and their modes of segregation during mitosis and meiosis
o Organization of DNA and chromatin in the chromosomes
o The equational division of somatic cells
o Reduction of germ cell division
o Gametogenesis and fertilization
The Mendelian laws that regulate the transmission of genes: correlation between genotype and phenotype
o From gene to protein and phenotype: relationship between genotype and phenotype
o Allelic interactions: dominant alleles, recessive alleles and codominance
o Law of character segregation and independent assortment principle
The modes of transmission of monogenic traits in humans
o Examples of Mendelian inherited monogenic pathologies (Cystic fibrosis, thalassemia, deafness)
o Autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance
o Penetrance and expressiveness, multiple alleles (blood groups ABO, Rh).
o Sex-related legacy
o Mitochondrial inheritance
o Genetic heterogeneity
o Family trees
Teaching methods
The course consists of frontal lectures (20 hours in class for Biochemistry Module, and 30 hours in class for Biology and Genetic Module) during which the students can intervene with questions. All the lectures are supported by PowerPoint presentations, made available to the student on the ARIEL website. The textbook is recommended as a resource to help clarify concepts.
Teaching Resources
Sadava, Hillis, Heller, Berenbaum "Elementi di biologia e genetica" Ed.: Zanichelli.
Campbell, Reece " Biologia & Genetica. Ed.: Pearson.
De Leo, Ginelli, Fasano " Biologia e Genetica". Ed.: Edises.
Biochimica
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Biologia applicata
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Biasin Mara
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
on appointment to be organised via e-mail
Palazzina LITA-Vialba