Biomedical Science

A.Y. 2019/2020
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10 BIO/13 MED/03 MED/04 MED/07
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- To know the general biochemical principles necessary for the understanding of living matter and organic compounds for biochemistry
- To acquire the methods of laboratory diagnostics
- To acquire knowledge of the principles of microbiology and clinical microbiology
- To acquire knowledge of the causes of diseases in humans, as well as the fundamental pathogenic and physiopathological mechanisms
Expected learning outcomes
- To know the reference parameters of laboratory diagnostics
- To know the laboratory tests typical of pathological pictures
- Knowledge of the structure and function of the cell
- Acquisition of microbiological diagnostic principles in relation to the collection/storage of clinical samples to be analyzed
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be written. It will mainly consist of multiple choice questions with the addition of some open questions, in addition it will be possible, at the discretion of the teacher, to carry out an additional oral test.
Biochimica
Course syllabus
Matter. Chemical and physical phenomena. Substances, elements and compounds. Structure of atoms, atomic number and mass number. Periodic system. Periodic table of the elements. Atomic ray. Ionization energy and electronic affinity. Chemical bonds: ionic, homeopolar covalent, polar covalent. Electronegativity. Hydrogen bridge bond. Van der Walls forces. Valenza. Octet rule problems. Valence bond theory. Valence bonds (sigma, pi-Greek). Hybridization, Hybrid orbitals. Hybridization of water. Inorganic compounds. Oxidation number. Binary compounds with oxygen. Hydroxides. Positive ions. Anhydrides. Oxyacids. Binary compounds with hydrogen. Negative ions. Salts. Reactions of: synthesis, decomposition, replacement, double exchange, oxide reductions. Carbon atom and hybridization. Basic notions of organic chemistry. Main functional groups: hydroxyl (alcohol and phenols), carbonyl (aldehydes and ketones), carboxylic (organic acids and derivatives). Amines and amino acids. General information: Glucids and lipids Aqueous solutions. The liquid state. Liquid properties. The water. The solutions. Way of expressing the concentration of a solution. Solubility. Dilution. Dissemination. Osmosis. Osmotic pressure. Ionic equilibria in solution. Dissociation of water. Ionic product of water Acid and base concept. PH concept. Buffer solutions. Chemical equilibria in solution. Kinetics of chemical reactions. Catalysis. The chemical equilibrium. Elements of thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Entropy. Free energy. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions. Protein. Structure and function of proteins. Simple proteins, conjugated proteins. Enzymology. Enzymatic catalysis: classification of enzymes, mechanism of action. Active site of enzymes. Coenzymes. Enzymatic kinetics. Allosteric enzymes. Oxygen-binding proteins. Myoglobin and Hemoglobin. Globin structure. EME structure. Function of myoglobin and hemoglobin. Mechanisms capable of influencing the release of oxygen from hemoglobin.
Bioenergetics principles. Thermodynamic systems and processes. Criteria for the realization of a transformation. Coupled reactions. ATP. Processes that produce ATP: substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. High energy compounds. Respiratory chain: functioning and regulation.
General aspects of metabolism: anabolism and catabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism. General concepts on carbohydrates. Carbohydrate digestion. Glucose fate. Glycemia. Blood glucose regulation. Insulin. Aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. Glycogen synthesis. Pentose cycle. Glycogenolysis and its hormonal regulation.
Lipid metabolism. Structure and characteristics of fatty acids and triacylglycerols. Notes on the structure of phospholipids and cholesterol. Lipid digestion. Lipoproteins. Transport of food lipids. Catabolism of triglycerides. Lipolysis. Beta oxidation of fatty acids. Formation of ketone bodies. Krebs cycle: reactions, energy balance and regulation. Biosynthetic function of the Krebs cycle. Notes on the synthesis of saturated fatty acids. Biosynthesis of triglycerides. Notes on the biosynthesis of cholesterol.
Protein metabolism. Protein digestion. General reactions of amino acids: transamination, deamination and decarboxylation. Nitrogen elimination processes: urea cycle, glutamine formation. gluconeogenesis
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Simona De Grazia, Donatella Ferraro , Giovanni Giammanco -Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica. Per le professioni sanitarie e odontoiatria - Mylab
Biologia applicata
Course syllabus
Characteristics of living organisms: cell theory; cell study methods; prokaryotic cells; eukaryotic cells; hierarchical organization in biology; evolution of organisms.
Structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell: biological macromolecules; cell compartmentalization; cell organelles; ribosomes; cytoskeleton; cell junctions; matrix.
Structure and function of biological membranes: fluid mosaic model; transport through the membrane.
Cellular communication: modality of communication between cells.
Flow of genetic information: central dogma of biology; DNA replication; transcription; maturation of messenger RNAs; genetic code and its properties; protein synthesis mechanism; post-synthetic fate of proteins.
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Wolfe, Russell, Hertz, Starr, McMillan, Elementi di Biologia Cellulare - Edises
Purves, et al., Elementi di Biologia e Genetica - Zanichelli
Patologia generale
Course syllabus
Disease concept: etiology and pathogenesis
· Congenital and hereditary pathologies.
· Damage response: local and systemic.
· Blood and hemostasis. Insufficiency of the erythrocyte system.
· Immune response: Fundamental bases of innate and acquired immune response. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response.
· Immunopathology: tissue damage mediated by immune reactions (hypersensitivity). Rejection of transplanted tissues. Autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases.
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Pontieri: Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia Generale - Piccin
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
Course syllabus
Basic principles of Microbiology. The bacterial cell: morphology, size, structure and methods for observation Bacterial reproduction and forms of environmental resistance (the spore). Conditions of existence, metabolism, cultivability and growth kinetics of bacteria Bacterial growth control: sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, antibacterial drugs and resistance mechanisms Bacterial genetics: bacterial chromosome and extrachromosomal genetic elements, sources of genetic variability (mutations and transfer of genes, lysogenic conversion). Principles of classification of microorganisms Microorganism-host relationships: commensalism, symbiosis, parasitism and microbial populations colonizing the skin and mucous surfaces of the human organism Notes on the aggressiveness factors of microorganisms and on the defense factors of the human organism. Concepts of pathogenic, apathogenic, opportunistic pathogenic microorganism General information on infection diseases: exogenous and endogenous infections routes of transmission, reservoirs of infection, nosocomial infections pathogenesis mechanisms infection control and prevention, vaccine prophylaxis Principles of microbiological diagnostics also in relation to the collection / collection and storage of clinical samples to be analyzed Generalities and diseases caused by: Staphylococci, Streptococci, Enterococci, Neisserie, Mycobacteria, Enterobacteria, Anaerobic bacteria in general and in particular Clostridia Infections involving the cardiovascular system: bacteremia, sepsis, endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis General structure, replication, transmission of viruses. Diseases caused by: herpetic viruses, hepatotropic viruses, retroviruses, influenza viruses General information on human pathogenic protozoa, in particular: Leishmania, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma General information on human pathogenic fungi, in particular: Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Harvey, Champe, Fisher - Le basi della Microbiologia - Zanichelli, 2008
M. la Placa - Principi di Microbiologia Medica - Esculapio
Genetica medica
Course syllabus
Human genome and karyotype: morphology and classification of human chromosomes
- Chromosomal and genomic mutations: main chromosomal mutations (deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation) and their effects; genomic mutations (polyploidy, aneuploidy), non-disjunction; main aneuploidies of autosomes and heterosomes in humans and related diseases
- Karyotype analysis methods: classical and molecular cytogenetics techniques
- DNA sequencing methods (Sanger and NGS), the Human Genome project
- Gene variants: polymorphisms (SNP, microsatellites) and mutations
- Gene mutations: spontaneous and induced mutations; neutral, missense, nonsense, frameshift, splicing mutations and their effect on the protein product and phenotype
- Mendelian genetics: the transmission of hereditary characteristics and Mendel's laws; genotype and phenotype; gene, allele, locus; dominant and recessive traits; multiple allelism (ABO and Rh system)
- Genealogical trees: representation of genealogical trees; autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive inheritance, linked to sex and associated pathologies; inactivation of the X chromosome
- Confounding factors in Mendelian inheritance: penetration of a mutation, variable expressivity, de novo germ and somatic mutations and mosaicism, genetic heterogeneity
- Dynamic mutations from microsatellites and diseases from expansion of repeated sequences
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Purves: Elementi di Biologia e Genetica - Zanichelli;
Russel, Wolfe: Elementi di Genetica - Edises
Biochimica
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Mauri Laura
Biologia applicata
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Genetica medica
MED/03 - MEDICAL GENETICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Ratti Antonia
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Alteri Claudia
Patologia generale
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours