Cellular homeostasis is the resultant of a complex network of chemical reactions and metabolic pathways occurring within the different organelles present in the cell and in a continuous and dynamic cross-talk. The regulation of gene expression plays a significant role in all cell regulatory activities and epigenetic modification of the DNA have a unique role in the control of specific cell functions. Deviances from natural homeostasis generally result in pathology. The aim of the course will be to familiarize the students with major intracellular potential targets of selected classes of xenobiotics and environmental stressors of chemical and physical nature and with the methodologies to be applied for the study and identification of xenobiotics potentially harmful for human health.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course students will acquire the biochemical and molecular bases that regulate metabolism and other cellular functions in different cell types and organs. In particular, students will be able to understand molecular mechanisms of regulation of metabolism in response to hormones, nutritional and environmental cues. Students will also acquire knowledge on epigenome modifications and how they are implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including metabolism, gene transcription, differentiation, cell reprogramming in health and disease and in response to environmental stimuli (e.g., xenobiotics) that may impact other generations (transgenerational effects).
1. Liver and its structure in relation with its functions. Metabolism and molecular mechanisms of regulation of metabolic pathways. Glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Mevalonate pathway, cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and metabolism. Lipoprotein metabolism. Metabolism of xenobiotics. 2. Adipose tissues: "the adipose organ". Molecular mechanisms of differentiation and of metabolic functions of adipose tissues. Molecular mechanisms of lipogenesis and lipolysis. Role of factors released by adipose tissues in metabolic homeostasis. 3. Skeletal muscle and bone: metabolic features of skeletal muscle fibers. Biochemical determinants of skeletal muscle remodeling. Structure and components of the bone. Calcium metabolism. Biochemistry and metabolism of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and of bone remodeling. Role of factors released by skeletal muscles and bones on metabolic homeostasis. 4. Brain: metabolic functions of main brain cell populations. Regulation of glucose metabolism in neurons and astrocytes. Cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the brain and their functional role. 5. Regulation of metabolism. Interorgan correlations. Regulation of metabolism in response to hormones and nutritional status. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of metabolism. 6. Epigenetics and regulation. Modifications of DNA bases. Histone modifications. Epigenetic marks of transcriptional activation and repression. 7. Stem cells, differentiation and epigenetics. Epigenetics and cell reprogramming. Environment and epigenetics. Transgenerational effects of epigenome modifications.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledge in Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, Physiology, General and Organic Chemistry and Physics from BS degree.
Classroom lectures. During classes the teacher often interacts with students by asking them questions aimed at stimulating discussion and deeper understanding of concepts and topics.
pdf files of the slides are available for students and are continuously updated when necessary through the teacher's web portal. References to specific articles illustrated and discussed during the lectures are indicated in the pdf of the slides.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Mode: Individual written test
Type: Exam will be written with two open questions (one hour or 1.5 hour maximum) followed by discussion on the written test on the topics illustrated to students during the classes, with the aim of assessing how the concepts have been acquired.
Evaluation parameters: Critical discussion of topics covered during frontal lessons, through which understanding, correctness, appropriateness of language, ability to connect different topics of the program and apply them to relevant biological questions will be evaluated
Type of evaluation: Rated in thirtieths
Notification of results: The results of the exams will be notified at the end of the test and will be recorded through the appropriate portal of reporting predisposed for each course