In the course of General Pathology and pathophysiology are delineated the most important aspects of modern cellular and molecular pathology, as well as multicellular pathologic processes regarding degenerative, inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Cellular physiopathology and the mechanisms underlying the pathology of specific organs and integrated functions are also considered.
Expected learning outcomes
Alla fine del corso lo studente dovrà: ● Possedere le conoscenze necessarie per capire, descrivere e riconoscere le cause determinanti ed i meccanismi patogenetici delle malattie dell'uomo, nonché l'eziopatogenesi delle alterazioni fondamentali delle strutture, delle funzioni e dei meccanismi di controllo ai vari livelli di integrazione. ● Saper prendere in esame gli aspetti biologico-molecolari delle principali patologie umane, considerando la cellula come base di riferimento. ● Saper risalire dai fenomeni elementari della cellula alle alterazioni tissutali ed alla possibile ripercussione sull'alterazione dell'omeostasi dell'organismo (malattia). ● Essere in grado di aggiornarsi anche mediante la consultazione di riviste scientifiche qualificate
General etiology - Define the concept of "cause" in pathology and illustrate the following mechanisms of the interaction between external agents and the living organism:
a) pathogenetic mechanisms (type of damage, interaction between intrinsic and acquired causative factors);
b) cell death (necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy);
c) damaging effect of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations at the level of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms;
d) damaging effect of oxygen deficiency and adaptation mechanisms;
e) ischemia and reperfusion injury. Heart attack
f) oxidative stress and related pathological conditions.
Hereditary pathology; genetic and molecular pathology
- Describe the molecular and biomedical basis of genetic diseases and, in particular, illustrate important examples of:
a) genetic diseases associated with defects of structural proteins (collagenopathies, Marfan syndrome);
b) genetic diseases associated with receptorial defects (familial hypercholesterolemia, familial hyperlipoproteinemia);
c) genetic diseases associated with structural and / or functional defects of enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins (lysosomal diseases, glycogenoses, mucopolysaccharidoses, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency);
d) genetic diseases associated with defects in membrane transport (cystic fibrosis);
Clarify the mechanisms of genetic abnormalities of leukocytes (in particular chronic granulomatous disease);
Illustrate the molecular and genetic bases of hemoglobin-related diseases (hemoglobinopathies, thalassemias);
Illustrate the genetic basis of diseases with multifactorial inheritance (eg diabetes);
Illustrate the molecular and genetic basis of non-Mendelian transmission diseases (mitochondrial diseases).
Pathology of subcellular structures and the extracellular environment Illustrate the main features of cellular regressive processes (eg steatosis). Illustrate the pathologies of the extracellular matrix explaining the mechanisms through which alterations of the relationships between the extracellular environment and cells affect the functionality of the parenchyma. Consider both the alterations of components of the connective tissue (fibrosis, cirrhosis) and phenomena of abnormal accumulation (amyloidosis). Explain the particular features of cerebral amyloidosis (Alzheimer).
Inflammation Expose the causative agents of inflammation, the vascular phenomena (alteration of permeability, exudate formation, etc.), the cells involved in the inflammatory process;
Define the molecular basis of leukocyte recruitment;
Describe the molecular basis of phagocytosis: mechanisms and defects;
Illustrate the chemical mediators that initiate and maintain the reaction by coordinating the succession of the various phases of inflammation;
Describe chronic inflammation;
Consider the interactions between immunity and phlogosis;
Define the interactions between phlogosis and the coagulation pathway;
Describe the molecular mechanisms of repair;
Consider the systemic manifestations of inflammation: leukocytosis, acute phase response, fever.
Prerequisites for admission
Basics of mathematic and statistic, Biology, Histology, Human Anatomy, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physiology
Lectures. Slides made available to students on Ariel platform
Testi: Pontieri: "Patologia Generale" Robbins & Cotran "Le basi patologiche delle malattie" Majno & Joris "Cellule, tessuti e malattia" Rubin " Patologia generale"