Provide basic knowledge of Physics and methods to describe and analyse natural phenomena.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will learn to address physical problems using equations, based on the laws of classical physics, and solve them quantitatively: 1. knowledge and understanding: knowledge of basic physical laws and their application context 2. ability to apply the acquired knowledge and understanding: application of the abovementioned laws to solve simple problems, providing both a parametric solution (as a function of the quantities characterising the system under exam) and a numerical solution with measurement units
REFERENCE FRAMES Cartesian and angular coordinates Position vectors and displacement vectors Vectors in general: sum, difference, scalar product, cross product
KINEMATICS Motion in space, trajectory, time aw Average velocity and instant velocity Acceleration, tangent and centripetal acceleration Angular velocity
DYNAMICS OF MATERIAL POINTS Law of inertia, uniform straight motion Laws of dynamics (F=ma, composition of forces, action-reaction law) Integration of the motion equation Particular case: constant force, uniformly accelerated motion Particular case: centripetal force, uniform circular motion Momentum and conditions for its conservation Torque, angular momentum, conditions for its conservation
INTERACTIONS IN NATURE Force fields Introduction on the fundamental interactions: gravitational, electromagnetic interactions, hints about strong and weak interactions Examples of motion in electric and magnetic fields [mass spectrometer, circular accelerators...] Macroscopic forces: constraint reactions, impulse forces, frictions, surface forces
SCALAR AND VECTOR FIELDS Field lines Line integral and circulation Oriented surfaces and flux Gradient of a scalar field
WORK AND ENERGY Work, kinetic energy, power Conservative forces, potential energy Mechanical energy and its conservation
CENTRAL FORCE FIELDS Conservation of angular momentum Potential energy Motion in a central field
ELASTIC FORCES Elastic force in a spring Harmonic oscillating motion Elastic energy Motion of a pendulum Elastic forces in materials (hints) A model for constraint reactions (hints) Forced oscillator
FLUID DYNAMICS Surface forces, pressure Laws of Stevin, Pascal, Archimede Law of Bernoulli
GRAVITATIONAL FORCES Law of universal gravitation Gravitational energy Motion in a central gravitational field Gauss theorem and field generated by an extended spherical mass
ELECTRIC FIELDS Coulomb's law, Gauss theorem Electrostatic potential Electric dipole, hints about interactions among atoms and molecules Electric current and current density Conductors and microscopic conduction model, Ohm law Properties of conductors, electrostatic screen
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS Maxwell equations Some particular magnetic fields (wire, loop, coil) Hints on magnetic dipole, hints on magnetization Law of Faraday-Neumann-Lenz and non-conservative electric fields Electromagnetic waves (plane and spherical) EM waves in matter: dispersion EM waves in conductors: absorption and electromagnetic screen
OPTICS Electromagnetic spectrum Huygens principle Interference and diffraction Fermat principle, optical ray Reflection law Refraction index, optical path Refraction law Thin lens
THERMODYNAMICS Empirical temperature and law-zero Thermal capacity, latent heat Kinetic theory of thin gases First law of thermodynamics and conservation of energy Carnot's machine, thermal machines, efficiency Second law of thermodynamics and entropy
Prerequisites for admission
good knowledge of basic mathematics, trigonometry, exponential and logarithm functios, differential and integral calculus.
Front lectures, on theory and exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to attend.
D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fondamenti di Fisica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (2006) Handouts downloadable from the web page of the course
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written exam - oral exams not foreseen. The final mark will account for the ability of solving problems in the topics treated in the lectures.