The course aims to provide the student with: a) the knowledge that underlies the design and development of new active ingredients having the necessary requisites to be able to become drug candidates; b) a good knowledge of the properties, the mechanisms of action and the use of the different classes of drugs treated; c) the fundamental knowledge on the structure-activity relationships for the purpose of a more rational design aimed at a therapeutic effect free from contraindications and toxic effects; d) indications concerning the synthetic methods used for the preparation of some of the drugs considered.
Expected learning outcomes
The student must demonstrate to have acquired what is foreseen by the educational objectives. In particular, the student must demonstrate that he / she has acquired and understood: a) the basic concepts of Medicinal Chemistry and the fundamental elements of drug design; b) the notions provided on the chemical, chemical-physical, structural properties and on the mechanism of action of the drugs belonging to the therapeutic classes considered and the main synthetic strategies that can be used for the preparation of drugs.
Lesson period: year
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry: The discovery and development of new drugs Biotechnology for the discovery and development of new drugs Molecular mechanisms of drug action The molecular targets of drugs Receptors as drug targets Enzymes as targets for drugs Drug design and development: Sources of research for lead compounds New "Drug design" strategies Structure-activity relationships (SAR). Pharmacophore research. Isosteria and bioisosteria Chemical-physical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and pharmacokinetics Prodrugs (prodrugs) Quantitative Relationships Structure-Activity (QSAR) Combinatorial chemistry as a research tool.
Special part: Antiseptics and disinfectants Synthetic antibacterials Antibiotics Antimycobacterial drugs Antiparasitic drugs Antimalarial drugs Anthelmintic drugs Antifungal drugs Antiviral drugs Anti-cancer drugs Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones and related drugs Steroid hormones (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens, progestins and androgens) and related therapeutic agents Thyroid hormones and related medications; Peptide hormones of the pancreas involved in carbohydrate metabolism and hypoglycemic drugs.
Prerequisites for admission
To adequately address the contents of the course it is necessary for the student to have a good knowledge of organic chemistry and biological chemistry and possess the basic notions of physiology.
All the teaching material shown during the lectures will be made available to students on the Ariel platform. Students will learn more about the treated topics using the following texts: 1. G. L. Patrick: an introduction to Medicinal Chemistry. (Last edition) - Oxford University Press. 2. L. Lemke, D. A. Williams: Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, (Last Edition) Ed. Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be divided into 2 tests. Written test: o The written test, consisting of open questions and a multiple choice questionnaire, will focus on all the topics of the program. The student must demonstrate that he has understood, and is able to use, the fundamental concepts of each topic. o The written mark is immediately recorded after the correction and the student can accept or reject it within the established time. Before this deadline, the teacher sets a meeting in which the students who so wish can view the correct written papers. Oral exam: Discussion of the written test and any further details on the topics not adequately developed in the first test. There are seven appeals in the calendar year and students can participate in consecutive tests without any restrictions. For attending students, there is also the unique possibility of taking the exam with two partial written tests (end of January and June) concerning, respectively, the program carried out in the first semester and that carried out in the second semester. The second part can be accessed, if a vote of at least 18/30 is reached in the first part. Otherwise, the student must go to the single appeals or wait for the two partial tests of the following year.
The programme is divided into two parts: general and systematic parts. General part Medicinal Chemistry within chemical and biological disciplines. Phase I and II Metabolism. Drug-receptor/drug-enzyme interactions' nature. Molecular properties conditioning biological activity: optical, geometric and conformational properties; Isosterism, bioisosterism, pharmacophore and prodrugs concepts Chemical-physical constants used in structure-activity-relations. Toppliss sequential method and Hansch approach correlation between chemical and biological data. Drug development: from research to industrial production. Industrial production of antibiotics by fermentation. Systematic part: Chemotherapeutic agents; Antibiotics; antimycobacterial drugs; antimycotic drugs; antiprotozoal drugs; antiviral agents; Antineoplastic drugs; Corticosteroids; Hormones; Antidiabetic agents; Vitamins.
Prerequisites for admission
The mandatory requirement to face and pass the exam is the knowledge of General Chemistry and, above all, a good fluency in Organic Chemistry. Therefore, in addition to the prerequisites provided by the course study plan, it would be advisable to pass also the Organic Chemistry II exam, in order to better understand the addressed synthetic topics.
All information about the program and educational materials (slide) is present on the teacher's ARIEL website. Recommended Books: Principi di chimica farmaceutica - Foye's PICCIN 2014 Chimica Farmaceutica - Patrick EDISES 2015 Chimica Farmaceutica - Wilson & Gisvold CEA 2014 Chimica Farmaceutica I processi di scoperta dei farmaci - Stevens PICCIN 2015 Principi di chimica farmaceutica - Foye's l'essenziale PICCIN 2017
Assessment methods and Criteria
The learning assessment includes a first written test and the subsequent oral test. Written Test - it is just preparatory and it is necessary to ensure that the student has enough knowledge and fluency in the covered topics. It consists of the treatise of four to five topics relating to the design, mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships and synthesis of drugs/ classes of drugs reported in the programme. The test duration is of two hours. Oral test - this test takes normally place after 10/15 days and it is sequential to the passing of the written test. The evaluation is positive if the student shows a discrete knowledge of the fundamental aspects of all the topics covered. It consists of the initial discussing of the written test and in the further treatment of other arguments of the course. The evaluation, expressed in thirtieths, considers the outcome of the written test and, above all, the critical dissertation of the topics covered during the oral test. If the candidate do not pass the oral test, he will have to undergo again the written.