Pharmacology and Toxicology

A.Y. 2019/2020
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The teaching, divided into two teaching units (Pharmacology and Toxicology), aims to provide the pharmacological basis of the therapy and the pharmacological profiles of the most commonly used drugs. A further objective will be to describe the problems associated with drug interactions, the mechanisms responsible for side effects, as well as the factors that can influence the therapeutic response. The aim of the teaching will also be to provide students with the basis for a correct characterization of the adverse effects of xenobiotics (eg drugs, pesticides, environmental pollutants), understand their functioning, defining some of the methods used in toxicological evaluation. Particular attention will be paid to drugs and medicinal plants.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the teaching, the student must demonstrate to have adequate knowledge of the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy of the disorders treated, as well as the toxicological aspects related to the use of xenobiotics. The student must also demonstrate the ability to apply basic knowledge in the management of pharmacological and toxicological problems.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
General Pharmacology
- Pharmacology areas. The development of new drugs.
· Insights in Clinical Pharmacology.
- Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.
- Receptors. Theories on receptor responses, classification of receptors.
- Agonists, antagonists, drug potency and efficacy.
· Signal transduction and second messengers.
- Chemical mediators.
- Inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Neurotransmission: the autonomic and somatic motor nervous system
- Principles and actions of drugs active on the peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system and drugs
- Anaesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives.
- Antidepressants and Anxiolytics.
- Drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Antimicrobial chemotherapies
Anti-tumor chemotherapies
Anti-viral agents and treatment of HIV infection
Blood clotting, anticoagulant and anti-platelet drugs
Drug therapy of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia
Hypertension therapy
Diabetes therapy
Drugs that control gastric secretion.
Pharmacological treatment of asthma.
- Principles of toxicology
- Mechanisms of toxicity and reparative mechanisms
- Toxicity of drugs and herbal remedies
- Toxicity tests
- Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity
- Immunotoxicity
- Eye toxicity
- Liver toxicity
- Kidney toxicity
- Neurotoxicity
- Cardiovascular toxicity
- Endocrine disruptors
- Developmental toxicity
- Risk assessment
- Environmental contamination and toxicology
- Metal toxicity
- Pesticide poisoning
- Natural toxins
Prerequisites for admission
The teaching is for students who have acquired knowledge on physiology, biochemistry, pathology and pharmacology. The preparatory exams are indicated in the "Manifesto degli Studi".
Teaching methods
- Frontal Lessons
Teaching Resources
- Slides presented by the teacher (available on Ariel website).
- Testi: "Farmacologia" HP Rang, MM Dale, et al. Elsevier, settima edizione; "Farmacologia" Katzung & Trevor's, Piccin, quarta
edizione; "Farmacologia generale e speciale per lauree sanitarie". A cura di A.A. V.V. Casa Editrice Piccin.
"Elementi di Tossicologia" - Hrelia, Cantelli-Forti - Ed. Ambrosiana
Assessment methods and Criteria
For the pharmacology part, the examination consists of an oral test during which the candidate's ability to provide an overall picture of the understanding of the aims of the teaching will be assessed, of the learning of the topics covered and the ability to synthesize and connect. Less important are the analytical details.
For the toxicology part there will be an oral examination, during which the candidate's learning of the topics covered, synthesis and linking skills will be assessed. The student's ability to frame the issues of toxicological evaluation in the perspective of safety assessment will be assessed. The student will have to demonstrate that he or she understands the key concepts and main operational tools that characterize the safety assessment of xenobiotics.
The final grade (in thirtieths) will be calculated using the weighted average (based on CFU) of the two grades obtained.
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Camera Marina
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Educational website(s)