Physical science, informatics, statistics and radiation protection

A.Y. 2019/2020
Overall hours
FIS/07 INF/01 MED/01 MED/36
Learning objectives
- Understand the methodological process of physics as basis of scientific learning;
- To know the fundamental principles of physics and their implications in the biomedical field, with particular reference to some topics of relevance for the propaedeuticity for the subsequent courses: forces and their balance, work and energy, conservation principles, mechanics of fluids, surface tension, principles of thermodynamics, basic concepts of electricity and magnetism, radiation and radiation protection;
- Ability to solve simple physics problems on topics more directly related to the biomedical field and give quantitative evaluations of the phenomena analyzed;
- Being trained on the organization of a hospital information system, on the CRS-SISS regional project and on Microsoft Excel.
- To know the statistical reasoning with particular reference to the disciplines that use biomedical laboratory techniques;
- To acquire the necessary knowledge to inform subjects undergoing diagnostic imaging or radio-treatment on the risks associated with the use of radiation and on practices aimed at preventing unnecessary exposure to radiation.
- To provide the basis of descriptive and inferential statistics
Expected learning outcomes
. Knowledge of the basic laws of classical physics and solve physics exercises on the topics covered, of varying difficulty
. Ability to give quantitative evaluations and estimates of physical phenomena analyzed and understanding of what are the physical quantities involved in metabolic processes
. Application of the scientific method for the resolution of problems requiring high reasoning skills
. Ability to work with Microsoft Excel software 2010 and newest versions
Ability to build up, read frequency tables and interpret key statistical indicators and perform simple data analysis.
. Ability to perform a simple linear regression with statistical software R and to interpret its output.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Prerequisites for admission
The student must have acquired basic knowledge of physical chemistry and mathematics, verified by the entry test.
Assessment methods and Criteria
A single written test divided into several parts: open-ended questions, multiple-choice questions.
For the diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy modulus, the exam is written and consists of 30 multiple choice questions (1 right, 3 wrong). You get 1 point for each correct answer and 0 points for each answer not given. To pass the test, the student must correctly answer at least 18 questions.
After correction by the professors, the results are communicated to the students through the unimi portal.
Fisica applicata
Course syllabus
Elements of mathematical analysis applied to the treatment of physics
Laws of motion as effect of applied forces
Equilibrium of an extended body subjected to both forces and constraints
Work of a force and energy
Energy conservation
Static and dynamics of fluids
Viscosity and motion of viscous fluids
Phenomena of interfacial tension
Gas Status Laws
Temperature as a status indicator
Heat as a form of disordered energy, energy balances
Thermodynamic transformations
Entropy, thermodynamic potentials
Electrostatic, electric field and potential, capacity
Electric current and Ohm's laws
Electromagnetic waves and radiation spectrum
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.
Teaching Resources
Benché il modulo di Fisica Applicata non faccia riferimento ad alcun testo particolare, si ritiene che sia un buon testo, sufficientemente chiaro ed esplicito, il seguente (Although the course of Applied Physics does not refer to any particular text, it is considered to be a good text, sufficiently clear and explicit, the following):
· F. BORSA, A. LASCIALFARI- Principi di fisica - Edises
Course syllabus
Information and informatic system of a Hospital Firm.
Basic informatics definitions:
o Differences between Software and Hardware
o What is an Operative System
o What is an Application Software
o Versions of the Windows O.S.
o Functions of Microsoft Office 2007-2010-2013-2016

Microsoft Microsoft Excel overview
Work sheet
Enter/remove/rename the work sheets
Creation of tables with:
o Numbers, Dates, Texts
Set a format to the values entered in the work sheet
Enter correctly Microsoft Excel formulas
Priority of the 4 arithmetic operations
Enter Rows and Columns
Print preview and settings
Display mode in Page Layout:
o Set headers to footers
o Print preview, Borders Settings, Settings of the heading in the footer section
Adjust Dimensions for rows and columns
Use of the function Copy & Paste with formulas
Regulations and Filters
Conditional formatting
Validation Data
Multiple formulas on Microsoft Excel work sheets
Resolutoin of circular references
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.
Teaching Resources
· Informatica per le professioni infermieristiche e ostetriche - Terzoni, Destrebecq - Editore Ulrico Hoepli Milano
· Step by step Microsoft Excel 2013 - Mondadori Informatica
Statistica medica
Course syllabus
· Descriptive statistics elements: statistical character, individual, universe and sample. Characteristics of the statistical sample. Frequency distributions (absolute and relative). Number of classes. Cumulative frequency. Frequency tables and graphs.
· Synthesis indicators. Central trend indexes (average, median, trend). Variability indices (range, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation). Form indexes.
· Elements of probability. Axioms. Conditional probability. Bayes' theorem. Random variables. Binomial distribution. Gaussian distribution, t-student. Chi-squared test
· Distribution of sample means. Statistical test concept. Null and alternative hypothesis, significance and errors.
· Parametric tests: t-student. Normality test. Nonparametric tests: Chi-squared test. Elements of survival analysis: Kaplan Meier method.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.
Teaching Resources
P. Lantieri, D. Risso, G. Ravera. Statistica Medica. McGraw-Hill, 2004
Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia
Course syllabus
∙ Structure of the atom
∙ Classification of nuclides
∙ Definition of radiation
∙ Electromagnetic radiation
∙ Wave length and frequency
∙ Photons
∙ The electromagnetic spectrum
∙ X and γ rays
∙ Use, production and detection of the electromagnetic spectrum
∙ The corpuscular radiation
∙ Ionizing radiation
∙ Characteristic X-rays
∙ Bremsstrahlung X-rays
∙ X-ray production in diagnostics
.Spectrum of an X-ray tube
∙ X-rays: production in radiotherapy
∙ Nuclear stability and radioactivity
∙ Radioactive decay
∙ The law of radioactive decay
∙ Average life and half-life
∙ Activities
∙ Alpha, beta-, beta +, gamma decay
. Electronic capture decay
∙ The various types of radiation in the interaction with matter
∙ Interaction of alpha and beta charged particles
∙ Collision
∙ Bremsstrahlung
∙ Interaction of alpha particles
∙ Bragg curve
∙ Interaction of beta particles
. Positron-matter interaction: annichilation
∙ Interaction of beta particles
∙ Photoelectric effect, compton, pair creation
∙ Attenuation of a beam of x and gamma radiation
∙ Attenuation law
∙ Detection system
.Dose equivalent to an organ
∙ Effective dose to the whole body
∙ Non-ionizing radiation: application examples
∙ MRI, laser, ultrasound
∙ D.lgs.187 / 2000
. Principle ALARA
∙ Principle of justification
∙ Optimization process
∙ Reference diagnostic levels
∙ Equipment acceptability criteria
∙ Protection during pregnancy and lactation
∙ Main exclusive responsibilities of the operator
∙ Responsibility of the RIR
∙ Responsibility of the medical specialist
∙ Expert responsibility in medical physics
∙ Purpose of radiation protection
.Dose limits for members of the public
∙ Classification criteria for workers
∙ Exposed workers in categories A and B
.Dose limits for exposed workers
∙ Physical and medical surveillance
∙ Classification of areas
∙ Internal and external exposure
∙ Sources of risk in radiological activities
∙ Personal protective equipment
∙ Safety in radiological activity
.Traditional radiographic procedures for radiation protection standards
∙ Dental radiology radiation protection standards
∙ Mammography radioprotection standards
.TAC radiation protection standards
∙ Radioscopy and interventional radiology radiation protection standards
∙ Sources of risk in radiotherapy radiation protection standards
∙ Sources of risk in brachytherapy radiation protection standards
∙ Sources of risk with unsealed radioactive substances
∙ In vitro diagnostic procedures
∙ General planning principles
∙ Radioactive waste
∙ Study of the action and effects of ionizing radiation on biological structures
∙ Experimental techniques of radiobiology
∙ Sequences of events of radiobiological interest
∙ Radiation cell damage
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.
Teaching Resources
Slide utilizzate a lezione.
Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Maioli Claudio
Fisica applicata
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 4
Lessons: 40 hours
INF/01 - INFORMATICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Statistica medica
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 4
Lessons: 40 hours