#
Physical science, informatics, statistics and radiation protection

A.Y. 2019/2020

Learning objectives

- Understand the methodological process of physics as basis of scientific learning;

- To know the fundamental principles of physics and their implications in the biomedical field, with particular reference to some topics of relevance for the propaedeuticity for the subsequent courses: forces and their balance, work and energy, conservation principles, mechanics of fluids, surface tension, principles of thermodynamics, basic concepts of electricity and magnetism, radiation and radiation protection;

- Ability to solve simple physics problems on topics more directly related to the biomedical field and give quantitative evaluations of the phenomena analyzed;

- Being trained on the organization of a hospital information system, on the CRS-SISS regional project and on Microsoft Excel.

- To know the statistical reasoning with particular reference to the disciplines that use biomedical laboratory techniques;

- To acquire the necessary knowledge to inform subjects undergoing diagnostic imaging or radio-treatment on the risks associated with the use of radiation and on practices aimed at preventing unnecessary exposure to radiation.

- To provide the basis of descriptive and inferential statistics

- To know the fundamental principles of physics and their implications in the biomedical field, with particular reference to some topics of relevance for the propaedeuticity for the subsequent courses: forces and their balance, work and energy, conservation principles, mechanics of fluids, surface tension, principles of thermodynamics, basic concepts of electricity and magnetism, radiation and radiation protection;

- Ability to solve simple physics problems on topics more directly related to the biomedical field and give quantitative evaluations of the phenomena analyzed;

- Being trained on the organization of a hospital information system, on the CRS-SISS regional project and on Microsoft Excel.

- To know the statistical reasoning with particular reference to the disciplines that use biomedical laboratory techniques;

- To acquire the necessary knowledge to inform subjects undergoing diagnostic imaging or radio-treatment on the risks associated with the use of radiation and on practices aimed at preventing unnecessary exposure to radiation.

- To provide the basis of descriptive and inferential statistics

Expected learning outcomes

. Knowledge of the basic laws of classical physics and solve physics exercises on the topics covered, of varying difficulty

. Ability to give quantitative evaluations and estimates of physical phenomena analyzed and understanding of what are the physical quantities involved in metabolic processes

. Application of the scientific method for the resolution of problems requiring high reasoning skills

. Ability to work with Microsoft Excel software 2010 and newest versions

Ability to build up, read frequency tables and interpret key statistical indicators and perform simple data analysis.

. Ability to perform a simple linear regression with statistical software R and to interpret its output.

. Ability to give quantitative evaluations and estimates of physical phenomena analyzed and understanding of what are the physical quantities involved in metabolic processes

. Application of the scientific method for the resolution of problems requiring high reasoning skills

. Ability to work with Microsoft Excel software 2010 and newest versions

Ability to build up, read frequency tables and interpret key statistical indicators and perform simple data analysis.

. Ability to perform a simple linear regression with statistical software R and to interpret its output.

**Lesson period:** year
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)

**Assessment methods:** Esame

**Assessment result:** voto verbalizzato in trentesimi

Course syllabus and organization

### Single session

Responsible

**Prerequisites for admission**

The student must have acquired basic knowledge of physical chemistry and mathematics, verified by the entry test.

**Assessment methods and Criteria**

A single written test divided into several parts: open-ended questions, multiple-choice questions.

For the diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy modulus, the exam is written and consists of 30 multiple choice questions (1 right, 3 wrong). You get 1 point for each correct answer and 0 points for each answer not given. To pass the test, the student must correctly answer at least 18 questions.

After correction by the professors, the results are communicated to the students through the unimi portal.

For the diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy modulus, the exam is written and consists of 30 multiple choice questions (1 right, 3 wrong). You get 1 point for each correct answer and 0 points for each answer not given. To pass the test, the student must correctly answer at least 18 questions.

After correction by the professors, the results are communicated to the students through the unimi portal.

**Fisica applicata**

**Course syllabus**

Elements of mathematical analysis applied to the treatment of physics

Laws of motion as effect of applied forces

Equilibrium of an extended body subjected to both forces and constraints

Work of a force and energy

Energy conservation

Static and dynamics of fluids

Viscosity and motion of viscous fluids

Phenomena of interfacial tension

Gas Status Laws

Temperature as a status indicator

Heat as a form of disordered energy, energy balances

Thermodynamic transformations

Entropy, thermodynamic potentials

Electrostatic, electric field and potential, capacity

Electric current and Ohm's laws

Electromagnetic waves and radiation spectrum

Laws of motion as effect of applied forces

Equilibrium of an extended body subjected to both forces and constraints

Work of a force and energy

Energy conservation

Static and dynamics of fluids

Viscosity and motion of viscous fluids

Phenomena of interfacial tension

Gas Status Laws

Temperature as a status indicator

Heat as a form of disordered energy, energy balances

Thermodynamic transformations

Entropy, thermodynamic potentials

Electrostatic, electric field and potential, capacity

Electric current and Ohm's laws

Electromagnetic waves and radiation spectrum

**Teaching methods**

Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.

**Teaching Resources**

Benché il modulo di Fisica Applicata non faccia riferimento ad alcun testo particolare, si ritiene che sia un buon testo, sufficientemente chiaro ed esplicito, il seguente (Although the course of Applied Physics does not refer to any particular text, it is considered to be a good text, sufficiently clear and explicit, the following):

· F. BORSA, A. LASCIALFARI- Principi di fisica - Edises

· F. BORSA, A. LASCIALFARI- Principi di fisica - Edises

**Informatica**

**Course syllabus**

Information and informatic system of a Hospital Firm.

The CRS-SISS

Basic informatics definitions:

o Differences between Software and Hardware

o What is an Operative System

o What is an Application Software

o Versions of the Windows O.S.

o Functions of Microsoft Office 2007-2010-2013-2016

Microsoft Microsoft Excel overview

Work sheet

Enter/remove/rename the work sheets

Creation of tables with:

o Numbers, Dates, Texts

Set a format to the values entered in the work sheet

Enter correctly Microsoft Excel formulas

Priority of the 4 arithmetic operations

Enter Rows and Columns

Print preview and settings

Display mode in Page Layout:

o Set headers to footers

o Print preview, Borders Settings, Settings of the heading in the footer section

Adjust Dimensions for rows and columns

Functions:

o SUM

o AVERAGE

o MAX

o MIN

Use of the function Copy & Paste with formulas

Regulations and Filters

Conditional formatting

Validation Data

Multiple formulas on Microsoft Excel work sheets

Charts

Resolutoin of circular references

The CRS-SISS

Basic informatics definitions:

o Differences between Software and Hardware

o What is an Operative System

o What is an Application Software

o Versions of the Windows O.S.

o Functions of Microsoft Office 2007-2010-2013-2016

Microsoft Microsoft Excel overview

Work sheet

Enter/remove/rename the work sheets

Creation of tables with:

o Numbers, Dates, Texts

Set a format to the values entered in the work sheet

Enter correctly Microsoft Excel formulas

Priority of the 4 arithmetic operations

Enter Rows and Columns

Print preview and settings

Display mode in Page Layout:

o Set headers to footers

o Print preview, Borders Settings, Settings of the heading in the footer section

Adjust Dimensions for rows and columns

Functions:

o SUM

o AVERAGE

o MAX

o MIN

Use of the function Copy & Paste with formulas

Regulations and Filters

Conditional formatting

Validation Data

Multiple formulas on Microsoft Excel work sheets

Charts

Resolutoin of circular references

**Teaching methods**

Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.

**Teaching Resources**

· Informatica per le professioni infermieristiche e ostetriche - Terzoni, Destrebecq - Editore Ulrico Hoepli Milano

· Step by step Microsoft Excel 2013 - Mondadori Informatica

· Step by step Microsoft Excel 2013 - Mondadori Informatica

**Statistica medica**

**Course syllabus**

· Descriptive statistics elements: statistical character, individual, universe and sample. Characteristics of the statistical sample. Frequency distributions (absolute and relative). Number of classes. Cumulative frequency. Frequency tables and graphs.

· Synthesis indicators. Central trend indexes (average, median, trend). Variability indices (range, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation). Form indexes.

· Elements of probability. Axioms. Conditional probability. Bayes' theorem. Random variables. Binomial distribution. Gaussian distribution, t-student. Chi-squared test

· Distribution of sample means. Statistical test concept. Null and alternative hypothesis, significance and errors.

· Parametric tests: t-student. Normality test. Nonparametric tests: Chi-squared test. Elements of survival analysis: Kaplan Meier method.

· Synthesis indicators. Central trend indexes (average, median, trend). Variability indices (range, deviance, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation). Form indexes.

· Elements of probability. Axioms. Conditional probability. Bayes' theorem. Random variables. Binomial distribution. Gaussian distribution, t-student. Chi-squared test

· Distribution of sample means. Statistical test concept. Null and alternative hypothesis, significance and errors.

· Parametric tests: t-student. Normality test. Nonparametric tests: Chi-squared test. Elements of survival analysis: Kaplan Meier method.

**Teaching methods**

Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.

**Teaching Resources**

P. Lantieri, D. Risso, G. Ravera. Statistica Medica. McGraw-Hill, 2004

**Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia**

**Course syllabus**

∙ Structure of the atom

∙ Classification of nuclides

∙ Definition of radiation

∙ Electromagnetic radiation

∙ Wave length and frequency

∙ Photons

∙ The electromagnetic spectrum

∙ X and γ rays

∙ Use, production and detection of the electromagnetic spectrum

∙ The corpuscular radiation

∙ Ionizing radiation

∙ Characteristic X-rays

∙ Bremsstrahlung X-rays

∙ X-ray production in diagnostics

.Spectrum of an X-ray tube

∙ X-rays: production in radiotherapy

∙ Nuclear stability and radioactivity

∙ Radioactive decay

∙ The law of radioactive decay

∙ Average life and half-life

∙ Activities

∙ Alpha, beta-, beta +, gamma decay

. Electronic capture decay

∙ The various types of radiation in the interaction with matter

∙ Interaction of alpha and beta charged particles

∙ Collision

∙ Bremsstrahlung

∙ Interaction of alpha particles

∙ Bragg curve

∙ Interaction of beta particles

. Positron-matter interaction: annichilation

∙ Interaction of beta particles

∙ Photoelectric effect, compton, pair creation

∙ Attenuation of a beam of x and gamma radiation

∙ Attenuation law

∙ Detection system

.Dose equivalent to an organ

∙ Effective dose to the whole body

∙ Non-ionizing radiation: application examples

∙ MRI, laser, ultrasound

RADIO PROTECTION IN THE SANITARY ENVIRONMENT

∙ D.lgs.187 / 2000

. Principle ALARA

∙ Principle of justification

∙ Optimization process

∙ Reference diagnostic levels

∙ Equipment acceptability criteria

∙ Protection during pregnancy and lactation

∙ Main exclusive responsibilities of the operator

∙ Responsibility of the RIR

∙ Responsibility of the medical specialist

∙ Expert responsibility in medical physics

∙ Purpose of radiation protection

.Dose limits for members of the public

∙ Classification criteria for workers

∙ Exposed workers in categories A and B

.Dose limits for exposed workers

∙ Physical and medical surveillance

∙ Classification of areas

∙ Internal and external exposure

∙ Sources of risk in radiological activities

∙ Personal protective equipment

∙ Safety in radiological activity

.Traditional radiographic procedures for radiation protection standards

∙ Dental radiology radiation protection standards

∙ Mammography radioprotection standards

.TAC radiation protection standards

∙ Radioscopy and interventional radiology radiation protection standards

∙ Sources of risk in radiotherapy radiation protection standards

∙ Sources of risk in brachytherapy radiation protection standards

∙ Sources of risk with unsealed radioactive substances

∙ In vitro diagnostic procedures

∙ General planning principles

∙ Radioactive waste

RADIOBIOLOGY

∙ Study of the action and effects of ionizing radiation on biological structures

∙ Experimental techniques of radiobiology

∙ Sequences of events of radiobiological interest

∙ Radiation cell damage

IMAGE DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES

PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGIOCHE BASES OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE

∙ Classification of nuclides

∙ Definition of radiation

∙ Electromagnetic radiation

∙ Wave length and frequency

∙ Photons

∙ The electromagnetic spectrum

∙ X and γ rays

∙ Use, production and detection of the electromagnetic spectrum

∙ The corpuscular radiation

∙ Ionizing radiation

∙ Characteristic X-rays

∙ Bremsstrahlung X-rays

∙ X-ray production in diagnostics

.Spectrum of an X-ray tube

∙ X-rays: production in radiotherapy

∙ Nuclear stability and radioactivity

∙ Radioactive decay

∙ The law of radioactive decay

∙ Average life and half-life

∙ Activities

∙ Alpha, beta-, beta +, gamma decay

. Electronic capture decay

∙ The various types of radiation in the interaction with matter

∙ Interaction of alpha and beta charged particles

∙ Collision

∙ Bremsstrahlung

∙ Interaction of alpha particles

∙ Bragg curve

∙ Interaction of beta particles

. Positron-matter interaction: annichilation

∙ Interaction of beta particles

∙ Photoelectric effect, compton, pair creation

∙ Attenuation of a beam of x and gamma radiation

∙ Attenuation law

∙ Detection system

.Dose equivalent to an organ

∙ Effective dose to the whole body

∙ Non-ionizing radiation: application examples

∙ MRI, laser, ultrasound

RADIO PROTECTION IN THE SANITARY ENVIRONMENT

∙ D.lgs.187 / 2000

. Principle ALARA

∙ Principle of justification

∙ Optimization process

∙ Reference diagnostic levels

∙ Equipment acceptability criteria

∙ Protection during pregnancy and lactation

∙ Main exclusive responsibilities of the operator

∙ Responsibility of the RIR

∙ Responsibility of the medical specialist

∙ Expert responsibility in medical physics

∙ Purpose of radiation protection

.Dose limits for members of the public

∙ Classification criteria for workers

∙ Exposed workers in categories A and B

.Dose limits for exposed workers

∙ Physical and medical surveillance

∙ Classification of areas

∙ Internal and external exposure

∙ Sources of risk in radiological activities

∙ Personal protective equipment

∙ Safety in radiological activity

.Traditional radiographic procedures for radiation protection standards

∙ Dental radiology radiation protection standards

∙ Mammography radioprotection standards

.TAC radiation protection standards

∙ Radioscopy and interventional radiology radiation protection standards

∙ Sources of risk in radiotherapy radiation protection standards

∙ Sources of risk in brachytherapy radiation protection standards

∙ Sources of risk with unsealed radioactive substances

∙ In vitro diagnostic procedures

∙ General planning principles

∙ Radioactive waste

RADIOBIOLOGY

∙ Study of the action and effects of ionizing radiation on biological structures

∙ Experimental techniques of radiobiology

∙ Sequences of events of radiobiological interest

∙ Radiation cell damage

IMAGE DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES

PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGIOCHE BASES OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE

**Teaching methods**

Frontal lessons and classroom exercises, supported by projector and blackboard.

**Teaching Resources**

Slide utilizzate a lezione.

Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia

MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 1

Lessons: 10 hours

Professor:
Maioli Claudio

Fisica applicata

FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 4

Lessons: 40 hours

Professor:
Rondelli Valeria Maria

Informatica

INF/01 - INFORMATICS - University credits: 1

Lessons: 10 hours

Professor:
Annunziata Francesco

Statistica medica

MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 1003

Lessons: 40 hours

Professor:
Menia Timoftica Claudia

Educational website(s)