The aim of this course is the study of the functions of body systems. Goal of the course is also to make the student aware of the functional relationship between various organ systems of the body as well as to explain the concept of internal environment and its regulation by homeostatic mechanisms. Understanding normal function and mechanisms of the human body will allow the student to understand, in future courses with a more clinical focus, the pathology and malfunctions of the human organs.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student should understand the function of human physiological systems and should also understand how these separate systems interact to yield integrated physiological responses to challenges as fasting or exercise. This knowledge will be the base to understand topics explained in future courses focusses on pathology and pharmacology and clinical medicine.
Lesson period: First semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
1) Cell Physiology · transports · diffusion - osmotic pressure · resting membrane potential- equilibrium potentials · graduated potentials 2) Action Potential · Genesys of the action potential · Absolute and relative refractory period · Action potential conduction-myelin sheath 3) Synapse · chemical and electric synapse · mechanisms of synaptic release · synaptic modulation 4) neurochemistry · neurotransmitter systems · receptors aganists and anthagonists 5) Central nervous system general organization · somatosensorial system · somatosensorial receptors · sensorial pathways 6) Nociception and pain: nociception pathways, pain modulation 7) Autonomic nervous system 8) Skeletal muscles · molecolar description-actin and myosin crossbridge cycling · sliding filament- role of calcium iones · motor pathways · neuromuscolar fuses · spinal reflexes 9) Respiratory apparatus · respiratory mechanics · Gas exchange and transport · Hemoglobin · Respiratory regulation 10) Cardiovascular system · cardiac cycle · electrophysiology of cardiac cells · regulation of heart pumping · arterial pressure regulation 11) renal system · glomerular filtration · tubular reabsorption and transports · ADH and Aldosteron mechanisms 12) digestive apparatus- anatomical description · chewing, salivation, swallowing · gastric functions, secretions, actions · control of gastric functions · nutrients digestion absorption and transports · hints of liver and pancreas functionality 13) methabolism · basal methabolism · anabolism and catabolism · body temperature control · fever 14) endocrinology · hypothalamus and hypophysis · growth hormone · thyroid hormones · adrenal glands: stress 15) hints of higher functions in CNS 16) auditory system: coclear mechanisms, auditory pathways, sounds localization
Prerequisites for admission
For this course will be necessary a good knowledge of Human Anatomy and a basic knoledge of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
This course is based on lectures. During the lectures many slides will be shown and explained and discussed.
1) Sherwood: Fondamenti di Fisiologia Umana- Piccin 2) Stanfield: Fisiologia - EDISES 3) Berne&Levy: Fisiologia - CEA 4) Silverthorn: Fisiologia Umana - Pearson 5) Zocchi: Principi di Fisiologia - EDISES
Assessment methods and Criteria
There are not ongoing tests during the course. There will be just a final exam, and this will be only oral, a discussion of about 15-45 min focussed primarely on the explanation of mechanisms of function of the human organs and organ systems. Will be also evaluated the knowledge of technical (medical) termes and the proper utilization in the discussions of those terms. There will be 6 possibilities to try the exam during the academic year, 2 in February, 2 in June-July and 2 in sept-oct.