Agricultural mechanization and energy systems

A.Y. 2020/2021
8
Max ECTS
76
Overall hours
SSD
AGR/09
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The first part of the course wants to give the basic elements relative to the agricultural mechanisation (general knowledges, tractors, etc.) and to someone of the energy systems.
The fisrt goal of the second part will be the good level of knowledge on the construction characteristics and the field use about the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines used in agriculture. The second goal will deal with the production and the use of all the renewable sources concerning the agricultural mechanization, available as at present as in the future. In particular, the production chains and the use of biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, hydrogen, etc. will be treated.The first part of the course wants to give the basic elements relative to the agricultural mechanisation (general knowledges, tractors, etc.) and to someone of the energy systems. The fisrt goal of the second part will be the good level of knowledge on the construction characteristics and the field use about the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines used in agriculture.
The second goal will deal with the production and the use of all the renewable sources concerning the agricultural mechanization, available as at present as in the future. In particular, the production chains and the use of biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, hydrogen, etc. will be treated.
Expected learning outcomes
The student is able to acquire theoretical and practical knowledges (through field and laboratory exercises and technical visits), that will permit to him to choose and judge a system composed by energy and agricultural mechanisation elements.
The student:
a) will recognize the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines, how they run and their optimisation;
b) will arrange the main agricultural tasks;
c) will recognize the potential of the renewable sources into the agricultural mechanization farm management.The student is able to acquire theoretical and practical knowledges (through field and laboratory exercises and technical visits), that will permit to him to choose and judge a system composed by energy and agricultural mechanisation elements.
The student:
a) will recognize the main towed and hitched implements and the self-propelled machines, how they run and their optimisation;
b) will arrange the main agricultural tasks;
c) will recognize the potential of the renewable sources into the agricultural mechanization farm management.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
A series of asynchronous lessons is made available, represented by video lessons consisting in part of commented Power Points and in part by recording of the teacher's desktop with audio commentary. Both of the above materials are organized to cover all program topics.
The lessons scheduled in the official timetable are partly classic remote lessons and partly moments of review and deepening of what has already been proposed in asynchronous mode. All remote activities are carried out on the Micosoft Teams platform with complete registration, to allow subsequent use even in asynchronous mode for students not present in the virtual classroom.
The methods and criteria for participating in any face-to-face lessons, which require a reservation with a special app, will be published in time on the Ariel pages of the course, as well as notices relating to any update related to the evolution of the legislation imposed by Covid- 19.
Course syllabus
1. Common introduction at the two units (0.25 CFU). Elements for the technical-economical selection of the machinery and preliminary transformation plants in cereals chain, in Italy and in the other countries in which the cereals cultivation is popular.
2. Recall of the main basic elements of agricultural mechanics (0.5 CFU): Kinematics: linear and rotational speed, radial and tangential acceleration. Dynamics: forces (friction, tension, centrifugal force), work, torque, power. Efficiency concept. Transmission components: gears, belts and pulleys, clutches.
3. The tractor (1 CFU). Otto and Diesel cycle engines and relevant devices for the reduction of the polluting gas. Cooling and lubrication. Combustion air filtering. Diesel engine bench tests, performance curves. Tyres and steel and rubber tracks. Traction and rolling resistance coefficients.
4. Tractor-implement coupling (1 CFU): the PTO and its technical characteristics; hitch hook and its homologation standards; hydraulic lift and its technical characteristics; tractor hydraulic intakes. Tractor global efficiency (rolling resistance, transmission, PTO, hydraulic system and slippage).
5. Safety and ergonomics in cereals chain operations: field tractors and stability problems (characteristics, standards, tests). Universal joint and PTO shaft.
5. Technical visits in cereals farms, including the execution of tests on machinery, with data acquisition and relevant elaboration.
U.D. 2
a) Part of Agricultural Mechanization:
1. Implements used in cereals, vineyard and horticultural farms: for the soil tillage, the seeding, the fertilizing, the spraying, the forage management;
2. self-propelled machines for the harvesting of cereals, grape, vegetables;
b) part of Energy Systems:
1. technical plant and production characteristics and use into the machinery for biodiesel, biogas/biomethane, bioethanol, microhydro and thermal and electric energy from solar source.
c) technical visits in selected Research Centres and farms, with the measurement of some technical working parameters of the implements used in cereals, vineyard and horticultural farms; where available, knowledge of fuel production plants coming from renewable sources and managements characteristics into the agricultural machinery.
Prerequisites for admission
Units 1 and 2 - A basic knowledge of the most common agricultural self-propelled machinery and implements used in open field crop cultivation is required, as well as a good theoretical and practical acquisition of the most frequently adopted cultivation techniques adopted for the open field and specialized crops.
Teaching methods
U.D. 1 - The Unit 1 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 3 CFU
- Classroom practise: 0.5 CFU
- Field practise: 0.5 CFU
U.D. 2 - The Unit 2 is structured as follows:
- Classroom lessons: 3.5 CFU
- Field practise: 0.5 CFU
Teaching Resources
Books:
- G. Pellizzi (1996) - Mechanics and agricultural mechanization - Edagricole, Bologna;
- P. Biondi (1999) - Agricultural Mechanics - UTET, Turin;
Official lecture notes and other material useful for exam preparation, available on the websites:
- http://dpessina.altervista.org - http://web.tiscali.it/profpessina
Assessment methods and Criteria
If in presence mode, the exam consists of a written and a subsequent oral parts, both to be carried out in each single session. Access to the oral part is only possible with an assessment that is not clearly negative (at least 15/30) in that written.
The written test, to be carried out in 1.5 hours, consists of 4 exercises:
- the first two require the dimensioning of a tractor and/or an implement, in the execution of specific cultivation tasks, starting from the provided data;
- the next two consist of the description of broad topics concerning the program.
The oral exam consists of the preliminary discussion of the written part and in the possible coming through of one or more topics related to the entire program.
For the attending students, in presence mode an on-going test is foreseen (proposed at about half course), consisting of 26 closed-end questions and a description of a broad topic, included in those already presented during the course. If in remote mode (usually on Zoom digital platform) the on-going test consists only on 24 closed-end questions.
In presence mode, the students who obtain an acceptable evaluation (at least 15/30) in the on-going test may carry out a shortened written test in the subsequent exam, consisting of the solution of only one of the two problems proposed (chosen by the student) and in the description of only one of the two proposed broad topics concerning the program.
If in remote mode (usually using Zoom digital platform), the students who have obtained a positive result of the on-going test (and do not refuse the evaluation), the exam consists of the solution in real time of only one problem concerning the dimensioning of a tractor and/or an implement. In addition, the students who do not have overcame the on-going test will have to answer to a question concerning a broad topic concerning the program.
Energy systems
AGR/09 - AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND MECHANIZATION - University credits: 4
Field activity: 16 hours
Laboratories: 8 hours
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Pessina Domenico
Mechanization
AGR/09 - AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND MECHANIZATION - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Facchinetti Davide
Professor(s)
Reception:
by appointment
Via Celoria, 2 - ex DIA building (first on the right) - ground floor
Reception:
by appointment only (preferably defined via e-mail)
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali - via Celoria, 2 - 20133 Milano