· The main features of living organisms: Biological diversity. - The origin of life. - Autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. - Role of plants in the biosphere.
· The chemical basis of life: - The chemical-physical characteristics of water molecules - Carbohydrates: structure, functions, role in cells - Structural and storage polysaccharides -Lipids: structure, functions, role in cells - Terpenes and essential oils - Lipids and biological membranes - Aminoacids and protein structure - Functional characteristics of proteins and notions regarding enzyme catalysis - Nucleotides and nucleic acids: structure, functions, role in cells
· Morpho-functional organization of plant cells: General organization of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes - Plant and animal cells - Biological membranes: structure and function - subdivision and transport - Cell membrane: the lipid and protein component - Cytoplasm and cytoskeleton: microtubules and microfilaments - Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum - Golgi Apparatus, ribosomes, peroxisomes, lysosomes - cell organelles and endosymbiotic theory - Mitochondria: structure and functions - Plastids: Genesis and types of plastids - Chloroplast: structure and functions - Cell wall: genesis, structure and functions - Vacuole: genesis, structure and functions - Osmosis, plasmolisis, relaxation - Nucleus: structure and functions Transmission of genetic information - DNA replication and transcription - Genetic code - Protein synthesis - Cell cycle: mitosis and cytodieresis - Meiosis, genotype, phenotype - Mendelian genetics, F1 and F2, test cross - Mutations, ploidy in cultivated plants - Notions of molecular biology methodology - Examples of genetically modified plants
· Structural and functional organization of plants: General organization of plants - Plant tissues: meristematic and adult - Root apex and anatomy of the primary root - Shoot apex and anatomy of primary shoot structure - Structure and secondary growth - Structure of annual rings: omoxilo and eteroxilo wood - The leaf: formation, connection to the stem, structure - The flower: formation and organography - Micro- and macrosporogenesis, micro- and macrogametogenesis - Fertilization and formation of the seed and the fruit - Types of seeds and fruits - Seed structure, germination and formation of seedlings
· Introduction to systematic Botany: Taxa and nomenclature. Metagenetic cycles in algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, spermatophytes. Introduction to plant diversity: thallus and corm plants. Eukaryotic algae: general information, morphology, organization, reproduction and cycles. Terrestrial plants: general taxonomics - Embryophytes: differences between bryophytes and tracheophytes - Bryophyta: general information, morphology, organization, systematics reproduction and cycles - Pteridophytes (vascular cryptogams): general information, morphology and organization, reproduction and cycles - Spermatophyta: general characteristics; ovule and seed, pollen - Gymnosperms: general information, morphology and organization; reproductive organs, reproduction and cycle - Angiosperms: general information, morphology and organization, reproductive organs, type of flower and inflorescences, type of fruits - Dicots and Monocots
· Animals and characteristics of the Animal Kingdom. Cell, heterotrophy, homeostasis and metabolism.
· · Characteristics and classification of animals.
· · Food behavior and evolution of the digestive system in the main groups of animals.
· · Animal evolution and phylogeny.
· · Introduction to the sub-phylum Hexapoda (insects).
· · Embryonic development: zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula.
· · Sexual and asexual reproduction, mitosis and meiosis, hermaphroditism, parthenogenesis.
· · Introduction to population ecology. Population characteristics. Population size and evolution.
· · Community ecology. Structure and functioning of communities. Symbiotic relationships.
· · Micro-evolution of populations: mutation, natural selection, gene flow, non-random reproduction, genetic drift.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledge of elements of inorganic and organic chemistry. Basic knowledge of elements of general biology.
Biologia delle Piante. Peter H. Raven, Ray F Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn. Sesta edizione (2013) Zanichelli Biologia.
La cellula. W.K. Prves, D. Sadava, G.H. Orians, H.C. Heller. Zanichelli
Speranza A. e Calzoni G. L. Struttura delle piante per immagini,
Pasqua G., Abbate G., Forni C. Botanica generale e diversita' vegetale. Piccin, 2015.
Mauseth J.D. Botanica. Parte generale. II ed. it. Idelson-Gnocchi, 2006.
Solomon. Biologia. Edises
S.L. Wolfe - P.J. Russell - P.E. Hertz - C. Starr - B. McMillan. Biologia. Edises
Lesson slides uploaded on Ariel: https://scolombiniba.ariel.ctu.unimi.it