Biochemistry

A.Y. 2020/2021
4
Max ECTS
40
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10 BIO/13
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- to develop the essential theoretical knowledge deriving from the basic biochemical sciences for the interpretation of biological phenomena, metabolic transformations, that regulate the interaction between organism and exogenous substances;
- to develop the preparatory theoretical knowledge for understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that govern the physio-pathological functions of the organism;
- to develop the basic notions and methodology of biochemistry and applied biology useful for identifying, understanding and interpreting biomedical phenomena, environmental phenomena and ecological cycles.
Expected learning outcomes
The BIOLOGY module aims to provide students with the basic knowledge of fundamental characteristics of living organisms. In particular, it aims to provide students with the basic knowledge of fundamental biological structures - biological molecules, cells, tissues - and their functioning. At the end of the course, students will gain knowledge of the main inorganic and organic components of living organisms, nucleic acid and protein synthesis and related basic regulation, the main functions of nucleic acids and proteins, and transmission of information from DNA to proteins, both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Students will also gain knowledge of the molecular organization and functions of subcellular organelles and membrane systems in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as well as cell division processes of eukaryotic cells.

The BIOCHEMISTRY module aims to give the student information on the functional role of proteins, enzymes, on the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Students will be able to explain the main mechanisms of metabolic regulation at the cellular and organ level. They will also gain the notions necessary for the interpretation of metabolic transformations and the theoretical knowledge preparatory for the understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that govern the physio-pathological functions of the body.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Teaching methods and methods:
The lessons will be held in synchronous form according to the schedule established in presence and/ or online using the Microsoft Teams platform made available to the University.

Program and reference material:
The program and reference material will not change.

Assessment methods and assessment criteria:
According to the directives in force at the time of the appeal, the examination will take place in presence and/or online. Oral online examinations will be carried out using the Microsoft Teams platform or other platform indicated by the University. Online written exams will be carried out using the Exam.net platform or other platform indicated by the University.
Prerequisites for admission
Preliminary knowledge of biology is required: comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure, DNA, RNA, and protein functions.
Preliminary knowledge of inorganic and organic chemistry is required
Assessment methods and Criteria
- Learning will be assessed by means of a written examination with both multiple choice questions as well as open questions
The final mark will be the result of the weighted average of BIO/13 and BIO/10 marks.

Attendance is required to be allowed to take the exam.
Biochemistry
Course syllabus
∙Aminoacids and Proteins: biological functions and metabolic role. Haemoglobin and myoglobin: structure and mechanism of action. Relationship between oxygen transport and CO2 transport.
∙ Enzymes: structure and properties. Enzymatic kinetics. Enzymatic regulation, competitive, non-competitive inhibition, from product to feed-back. Constitutive and inducible enzymes, phosphorylation and irreversible activation. Description of enzymatic cascades.
∙ General concepts of metabolism: Catabolism and anabolism. Partitioning of metabolic processes. Metabolic map concept. Free energy. Coupled reaction. Biochemical reactions (bioenergetics), biological oxidations, the role of ATP: structure and function.
Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation
Glucose metabolism: glycolysis and regulation. The shunt of pentoses phosphates. The carbohydrate reserves: glycogen-Gluconeogenesis -Krebs cycle and regulation
∙ Lipid metabolism: Fatty acids and β-oxidation. Lipid de novo synthesis. Lipid reserves: triglycerides of adipose tissue Lipoproteins. Cholesterol metabolism. Ketonic bodies
∙ Protein Metabolism. Protein digestion, Nitrogen balance and the urea cycle. Metabolic role of amino acids. Uruc acid production
∙ Metabolic integrations. Blood glucose regulation. Hormonal regulation of metabolism.
Teaching methods
- Teaching methods used by the lecturers will include frontal lessons.
- Teaching material will be uploaded on the Ariel website and include: a) pdf version of the teachers' presentations; b) web books; c) videos.
Teaching Resources
Le base della Biochimica, Autori: D. Ferrier ( Zanichelli) ISBN 9788808354006
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
Fundamental characteristics of living matter: complexity, growth capacity, self-reproduction capacity, adaptation to the environment.
- Cellular organization: cellular theory, fundamental properties of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, single-cell and multicellular organisms, evolutionary processes.
- Chemical composition of living matter: Inorganic and organic compounds, Biological macromolecules, The biological importance of water, Structure and function of nucleic acids, The information flow
- Structure and function of biological membranes, transport mechanisms across the membrane
The cell membrane system, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Nuclear envelope, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes
- Information flow: DNA as hereditary material, Central dogma of biology, DNA replication, General information on the structure of the eukaryotic gene. Mechanisms of transcription and maturation of mRNAs
- Protein transduction: the genetic code, Structure of the ribosome, Structure of the tRNA.
Teaching methods
- Teaching methods used by the lecturers will include frontal lessons.
- Teaching material will be uploaded on the Ariel website and include: a) pdf version of the teachers' presentations; b) web books; c) videos.
Teaching Resources
Biologia & Genetica Ed. Zanichelli. Autori: Donati, Stefani, Taddei.
oppure
Elementi di Biologia e Genetica Ed. EdiSES. Autori: Bonaldo, Crisafulli, D'Angelo, Francolini, Grimaudo, Rinaldi, Riva, Romanelli.
Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Battaglia Cristina
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Battaglioli Elena
Professor(s)
Reception:
Appointment upon request
Dept. Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Via F.lli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate