Biology and genetics

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
72
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/11 BIO/13
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Undefined
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lectures will still take place in classrooms, if students can't reach the buildings we might consider alternative ways.
Prerequisites for admission
No specific pre-requirement is requested for the admission to the course of Biology and Genetics.
Assessment methods and Criteria
In September, students will have the opportunity to take a written pre-exam exam. The test will consist of several multiple choices questions with 5 possible answers; one or more answers may be correct. The questions will cover most of the topics covered in class including methodological approaches. A score equal to one ore more will be attributed to each exact answer while an incorrect answer will lead to a small penalty. No score will be attributed to unanswered questions. Students who have achieved a score equal to or greater than 25 may request to take an oral test to obtain a better score. The mark of the oral exam will represent the final score to be recorded.
Students who have not taken or passed the September pre-exam will be assessed at the end of the course by means of an oral test in which the knowledge relating to the different modules of the course will be assessed. The final mark (expressed in 30ths) will be the weighted average of the marks obtained with the individual professors. For the cellular and molecular biology module the student will hold two interviews, one with each teacher. In each interview, the student will be asked two or three questions aimed at assessing knowledge of the main topics covered in class. The properties of language, the ability to organize a linear speech and, in general, the speaking capacity will also be evaluated. When possible, the biomedical applications of the acquired knowledge will also be evaluated.
Molecular biology
Course syllabus
· Structure of nucleic acids: a quick overview of the main experiments that resulted fundamental for understanding their structure and of the techniques useful for their purification and analysis.
· The structure of proteins and the techniques useful for their purification and analysis.
· Genes and genomes: organization and function.
· Methods in molecular biology: principles and applications.
· Transcription in prokaryotes: molecular mechanisms.
· Transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes and the lactose operon as a paradigm of negative and positive regulation.
· Transcription in eukaryotes: the factors and molecular mechanisms involved.
· RNA processing and its involvement in human health.
· Chromatin structure and DNA topology.
· Epigenetics: DNA methylation in physiological and pathological conditions; the histone code hypothesis and how an aberrant chromatin structure can induce human disorders; non-coding RNAs as regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and their relevance in human health.
· Protein synthesis: its protagonists and the involved molecular mechanisms.
· Main molecular mechanisms by which the genetic information can be preserved: DNA replication and repair.
Teaching methods
The module consists of frontal lectures. In all teaching moments, students are exhorted to try to find experimental strategies useful for solving small scientific problems or to critically analyze the results of some experiments or, eventually, to consider the possible biomedical applications deduced from the acquired knowledge.
The teaching material consisting of presentations in PDF format is made available at the end of the lesson on the Ariel platform.
Attendance of teaching is mandatory and revealed by easy-badge.
Teaching Resources
· B. Alberts, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, P. Walter Biologia molecolare della cellula, Zanichelli
· H. Lodish, A. Berk, C.A. Kaiser, M. Krieger, M.P. Scott, A. Bretscher, H. Ploegh, P. Matsudaira Biologia molecolare della cellula, Zanichelli
· G. Karp Biologia cellulare e Molecolare Edises
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
· The organization of living matter and the structural framework of the cell. Structure and functions of pro- vs. eukaryotic cells. Conservation of developmental programs among different species.
· Experimental models in cell biology. Cell models and organisms for the study of biological phenomena.
· The stem cell and its relevance for studying pathogenesis of diseases. Definition of stemness. Identification of master regulators of stem cell pluripotency. The induced pluripotent stem cell.
· Signal transduction. Cell membrane structure. Nature of intercellular communication and receptors. Second messengers.
· The cell cycle. Cell cycle phases. Regulation of cell cycle by extracellular stimuli. Cell cycle checkpoints. Role and regulation of cyclins.
· Cell death. Differences between necrosis and apoptosis. Milestones in apoptosis research. Roles of apoptosis. Molecular regulation of apoptosis. Caspases. The apoptosome. Extrinsic death pathway.
· Oncogenes and cancer. Classes of oncogenes. Mechanisms of proto-oncogenes activation. Tumor suppressor genes.
· Synthesis, folding and protein traffic and degradation. The quality control of proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. Folding enzymes and chaperons.
· The ubiquitin/proteasome system and autophagy.
Teaching methods
The module consists of frontal lectures. In all teaching moments, students are exhorted to try to find experimental strategies useful for solving small scientific problems or to critically analyze the results of some experiments or, eventually, to consider the possible biomedical applications deduced from the acquired knowledge.
The teaching material consisting of presentations in PDF format is made available at the end of the lesson on the Ariel platform.
Attendance of teaching is mandatory and revealed by easy-badge.
Teaching Resources
· B. Alberts, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, P. Walter Biologia molecolare della cellula, Zanichelli
· H. Lodish, A. Berk, C.A. Kaiser, M. Krieger, M.P. Scott, A. Bretscher, H. Ploegh, P. Matsudaira Biologia molecolare della cellula, Zanichelli
· G. Karp Biologia cellulare e Molecolare Edises
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Francolini Maura
Molecular biology
BIO/11 - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 48 hours
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
Please contact maura.francolini@unimi.it to schedule a meeting
Via Vanvitelli, 32 - 20129 Milano Dept. Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine