Biomedical Engineering

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
- Acquisition of the fundamentals and principles useful for understanding the fluid dynamics
- To acquire the principles useful for understanding the functioning of medical diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
- To acquire structural knowledge of materials and their biocompatibility
- To acquire the basic knowledge of the principles of electronics applied to biomedical materials and equipment
Expected learning outcomes
- Knowledge of basic physical principles
- knowledge of the laws governing the operation of biomedical materials and equipment
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

The lessons will be performed on-line on the Microsoft TEAMS platform and can be followed both synchronously on the basis of the first semester timetable and asynchronously because they will be recorded and made available to students on the same platform
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be written. It will mainly consist of multiple choice questions with the addition of some open questions, in addition it will be possible, at the discretion of the teacher, to carry out an additional oral test.
Applied physics
Course syllabus
Ideal gas law. Examples: mocha and flatulence at high altitude. Boyle's law. Charles's law. Gay Lussac's law. Avogadro's law. The duration of an oxygen cylinder. Archimedes' law. Fick's law. Brownian motion and analogy with the drunk walker. Diffusion coefficient.
Dalton's law. Partial pressures and scuba diving. Henry's law. Solubility and scuba diving. Surface tension (energy definition and dynamic definition) and spherical shape of drops and bubbles. Laplace's law.
Examples of application of Laplace's law. Alveoli and breathing. Ideal fluids in motion: flow rate, continuity law and Bernoulli's theorem. Examples: airplane, vacuum pump, Venturi mask. Viscosity and real fluids.
Reynolds number and turbulence. Poiseuille's laws. Speed profiles, maximum speed and flow in real fluids. Application examples: drip, catheter, tracheotomy. Hydraulic resistance, parallel and series of resistances. Applications to the circulatory system.
Pressure and shear forces. Pascal's law. Stevin's law. Open and closed pressure gauge. mmHg. Relative pressure. Sphygmomanometer. Exercises.
Temperature: the zero principle of thermodynamics. Thermal energy and heat: the second principle of thermodynamics. Irreversibility: the second principle of thermodynamics according to Kelvin and according to Clausius. Entropy: statistical interpretation (Boltzmann formula) vs thermodynamic interpretation. Third principle of thermodynamics. Specific heat and latent heat. Evaporation, conduction and Fourier's law, convection and radiation (Stefan-Boltzmann's law).
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
CONTESSA MARZO Fisica applicata alle scienze mediche, CEA
Materials science and technology
Course syllabus
Introduction to Biomaterials: definition of biomaterials, biocompatibility and main applications of the same Classification of Biomaterials (based on their chemical nature; based on the effects produced on the material by the biological environment) Metallic materials; polymeric materials; ceramic materials; composite materials; biological materials Stages in the design process of an artificial organ
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
Di Bello - Biomateriali - Collana di Ingegneria Biomedica, Patron Editore, 2004
Pietrabissa - Biomateriali per protesi ed organi artificiali - Collana di Ingegneria Biomedica, Patron Editore, 1996
Electronic and informatics bioengineering
Course syllabus
Introduction to the course: definitions of bioimaging
Technology and diagnostics: bioimaging
Main types of bioimaging and physical principles used for their generation.
X-rays: radiography and the generation of radiographic images; tomographic reconstruction technology; the method of reconstruction of the images and the main artifacts.
Magnetic resonance: generation of resonance images; fundamental components of the instrument; notes on functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Ultrasonography: image generation; main instruments; Doppler effect and speed estimation.
Technology and surgery
Computer-aided / integrated systems; minimally invasive surgery.
Pumping systems: classification and use; control and regulation. Particular analysis of peristaltic pump and centrifugal pump.
Valve prostheses and their design: types of valve prostheses; design and test criteria and methods.
Notes on exchange devices: oxygenators, heat exchangers and dialyzers.
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
J.B. WEBSTER - Strumentazione biomedica. Progetto ed applicazioni- Edises
COPPINI et al. - Bioimmagini - Patron editore
Bibliografia aggiuntiva
BASELLI et al. - Immagini biomediche: nuove tendenze in tecnologia, metodi e applicazioni - Patron editore
Electric and electronic measurements
Course syllabus
Introduction to the course.
Basic concepts: measure and uncertainty; precision and accuracy; signal and transduction; calibration; analog and digital signal.
Bioelectric measurements
Bioelectric potentials; measure of potential differences.
The electrocardiogram: the electrical activity of the heart; the dipole concept and standard derivations; the electrocardiograph and its fundamental components.
Examples of other applications: electromyogram and electroencephalogram, aims and methods.
Hemodynamic measurements.
Pressure measurements: characteristics of the pressure signal; methods for measuring the pressure signal with analysis of invasiveness, of the transducers used and of problems. Notes on frequency analysis, data filtering and average pressure calculation.
Blood flow measurements: direct measurement methods (electromagnetic flow meters, transit time, doppler velocimetry) and indirect methods. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methodologies.
Exercise: calculation of pressures and flow rates (and their variations) in a representative case relevant to the course of study.
Notes on other measurement systems.
Temperature measurements and their applications. Saturation Measurements.
Examples of devices related to measurements
Pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators: device specifications and measurements performed; description of the main components of the device and related problems; how the pacemaker works.
Aortic counterpulsor: device specifications and measurements performed; effect on the pressure signal; importance of synchronization; problems related to the use of the intra-aortic balloon and possible remedies
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with the possible addition of laboratory exercises
Teaching Resources
J.B. WEBSTER - Strumentazione biomedica. Progetto ed applicazioni- Edises
Bibliografia aggiuntiva:
AVANZOLINI et al. - Strumentazione Biomedica: progetto e impiego dei sistemi di misura -Patron Editore
DE ROSSI et al. - Sensori per misure biomediche - Patron Editore
Applied physics
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Cerbino Roberto
Electric and electronic measurements
Lessons: 20 hours
Electronic and informatics bioengineering
Lessons: 20 hours
Materials science and technology
Lessons: 20 hours