Biomedical Sciences 2

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
MED/04 MED/07
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- Develop the knowledge of the causes of human diseases and of the fundamental pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms;
- Know the fundamental notions related to pathogenic microorganisms and the interactions between microorganism and host;
- Develop the knowledge of the causes of diseases of infectious, professional and environmental origin.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student must have acquired the basic knowledge of microbiology and the main microorganisms responsible for human diseases, present in the environment, in food and in the workplace. This knowledge will be fundamental to understand the in-depth courses planned in the following years.
He will also need to know the basic pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for occupational diseases.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Teaching methods and methods:
The lessons will be held in synchronous form according to the schedule established in presence and/ or online using the Microsoft Teams platform made available to the University.

Program and reference material:
The program and reference material will not change.

Assessment methods and assessment criteria:
According to the directives in force at the time of the appeal, the examination will take place in presence and/or online. Oral online examinations will be carried out using the Microsoft Teams platform or other platform indicated by the University. Online written exams will be carried out using the Exam.net platform or other platform indicated by the University.
Prerequisites for admission
Know the anatomy of the human body
Know the mechanisms of human vital functions
Know the main concepts of biology
Assessment methods and Criteria
-The exam is in a written form with open questions
-The results of examinations are comunicated by e-mail message after registration on electronic register
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Course syllabus
CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
Cellular adaptations
Intracellular accumulations: Steatosis
Cell damage
Biochemical mechanisms of cell damage
Ischemia and reperfusion injury
Necrosis
Apoptosis
ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOLOGY
Chemical agents and physical agents as cause of disease
THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
Acute inflammation:
Alterations of microcirculation and cellular events
Chemical mediators of acute inflammation
Chronic inflammation:
Interstitial inflammation
Granulomatous inflammation: tuberculosis, foreign body granuloma
The pneumoconiosis
The systemic response to damage
The reparative process
IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY
General aspects of the innate and acquired immune response
Cells and organs of the immune system
Antigen recognition
Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
Hypersensitivity reactions
Autoimmunity
NEOPLASTIC DISEASES
Control of cell growth and non-neoplastic disturbances of cell proliferation
Neoplastic growth: characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms
Nomenclature and classification criteria for tumors
Mechanisms of local invasion and metastasis
The molecular basis of tumors: oncogenes and tumor suppressors
Carcinogens and their cellular interactions: chemical, physical and microorganism carcinogenesis
Epidemiological aspects of tumors
Occupational cancer risk
Effects of cancer on the host
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Teaching Resources
- G.M. Pontieri ELEMENTI DI PATOLOGIA GENERALE IV Edizione PICCIN
-Testo di consultazione:
Vademecum delle malattie infettive professionali - Z. Bisoffi, S. Dolci, F. Lombardini et al- PICCIN
Microbiology
Course syllabus
General microbiology
· Differences between the structure and the organization between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
· Differences between microorganisms and viruses
· Main methods of transmission of microorganisms and viruses
· Concepts of commensalism, parasitism, infection and disease
· Sterilization and disinfection
· Criteria for the collection and transport of biological samples for microbiological diagnosis in the laboratory

Characteristics of bacteria
· Main methods for the morphological study of bacteria
· Ultrastructure and functions of the different structures of the bacterial cell (cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, capsule, pili and flagella)
· Phases of bacterial growth
· Bacterial metabolism
· Environmental factors that influence growth
· Definition of pathogenicity and virulence
· Bacterial virulence factors
· Exotoxins and endotoxins
· Sporulation process
· Main antibacterial drugs
· Main preventive measures for the control of bacterial infections

Characteristics of fungi
· Fungal cell
· Mode of transmission of fungal agents
· Main characteristics of fungal virulence

Characteristics of protozoa
· Morphology
· Describe the importance of vectors
· Differences between protozoa and metazoans
· Main methods to fight parasites

Characteristics of virus
· Structure and classification of animal viruses
· Infection of a cell by animal viruses
· Mode of transmission of viral infections
· main preventive measures for the control of viral infections
Prions
Basics of laboratory biosecurity

Clinical microbiology
Bacteriology
· Staphylococcus aureus
· Streptococcus spp
· Neisseriae meningitidis e Neisseriae gonorrhoeae
· Bacillus spp
· Clostridium spp.
· Mycobacterium spp
· Main pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella)
· Pseudomonas aeruginosa
· Vibrio cholerae
· Brucella
· Legionella pneumophila
· Listeria monocytogenes
Micology
· Candida albicans
· Candida albicans
· Cryptococcus neoformans.
· Aspergillus fumigatus

Virology
· Human Herpesviridae
· Human Hepatitis virus
· Orthomyxovirus
· Rhabdovirus
· HIV virus and its role in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Teaching Resources
-Eudes Lanciotti - MICROBIOLOGIA CLINICA - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. Distribuzione Zanichelli
DISPONIBILE ANCHE IN VERSIONE e-book
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Bendinelli Paola
Microbiology
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Sisto Francesca