Chemistry of materials

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
CHIM/05 ING-IND/23
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The learning objective of this course is to provide the Student with an adequate knowledge of the basic concepts of the materials chemistry applied to the conservation of Cultural Heritage, with particular emphasis to the chemistry of both natural and synthetic polymers used in the arts as bulk materials (e.g. cellulose, wood and plastics) as well as adhesives, consolidants and protective coatings, for monuments, as an example.
In order to understand the most suitable conservation strategy for each type of material, the basic concepts on the degradation of polymeric materials will be discussed, framing them within the artistic context.
The chemical knowledge related to the micellar and emulsion systems and to the polymeric gels used for the cleaning and conservation of the artistic artefacts will be provided, as well.
In doing so, the Student will acquire the scientific and methodological skills necessary to carry out interventions. In addition, the Student will be able to evaluate the level of degradation of the work of art under investigation, analysing its chemical-physical and morphological-structural properties, therefore he/she will be able to identify and operate by exploiting the most suitable conservation strategy.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the Student will acquire:
- an adequate knowledge of the chemistry of both natural and synthetic polymers used in the artistic field both as bulk materials for works of art, and adhesives, consolidants and protective coatings;
- an adequate knowledge and awareness to recognize the degradation phenomena that may change the chemical-physical properties of polymers and their performances both as materials and protective coatings, from which will derive the ability to select the polymeric material with more suitable properties depending on the artistic field;
- the scientific and methodological skills necessary to carry out interventions, in order to evaluate the level of degradation and/or conservation of the Cultural Heritage;
- the ability to analyse the chemical-physical properties and morphological-structural characteristics of the materials employed in Cultural Heritage;
- the ability to dialogue with other professional figures in the field of Cultural Heritage, becoming
the ideal interface between who synthesize and produce polymers and who restore artistic artefacts.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
TEACHING METHODS
The course will be organized with lessons in synchronous mode, using the Microsoft Teams platform according to the first semester calendar.
It will be also possible to follow the lessons asynchronously as they will be recorded and uploaded on the Ariel platform.
One day a week, the teacher will be available to virtually meet students using a dedicated class on the Microsoft Teams platform in order to discuss and clarify students' doubts about the contents of a specific lesson and to provide further clarification.

COURSE SYLLABUS AND TEACHING RESOURCES
Attending students must refer to power point presentations for each lesson detailed in the program and uploaded to the Ariel platform.
In addition to the reference texts adopted and already indicated in the Syllabus, extra contents, such as dedicated videos, interviews with academic and industrial experts, and supplementary references materials will be published on the Ariel platform.

ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA
In case of emergency distance teaching, the final exam will be an oral test exploiting the Microsoft Teams platform according to the guidelines provided by the University of Milan.
The exam will consist of an oral examination lasting 30-45 minutes. The timetable with the exam dates will be published promptly and constantly updated in case of need.
The oral test will aim to ascertain the achievement of the objectives in terms of knowledge and understanding. In particular, the evaluation criteria will focus on the ability to answer general questions regarding all the topics covered in the course.
Score will vary in the range 18 to 30 out of 30 and will be proportional to the number of correct answers.
The test results will be communicated by e-mail at the end of the exam session and the registration will be conditioned on the acceptance by the student.
Course syllabus
The course will be organized in 5 macro-topics:
1. ARTEFACT DEGRADATION and CONSERVATION
· The role of surface and interface.
· The case study of paintings.
· The weathering.

2. THE ROLE of POLYMERS in CULTURAL HERITAGE
· Polymers in Cultural Heritage.
· Introduction and definitions of polymers and copolymers; classification of polymers; structure and morphology of polymers; polymerization synthesis; polymeric gels; thermal and physical-mechanical properties of polymers.
· Degradation of polymers.

3. ARTEFACT CLEANING
· Conservation treatments: cleaning, consolidation and protection.
· Cleaning of artefacts using:
- micellar solutions;
- emulsions and microemulsions;
- gels and polymeric dispersion.

4. POLYMERS as ADHESIVES, CONSOLIDANTS, VARNISHES and PROTECTIVE COATING for ARTEFACTS
· Consolidation and protection:
- polymers for Cultural Heritage conservation;
- polymers for stone conservation.

5. POLYMERS as BULK MATERIALS for ARTEFACTS
· Artefact conservation of:
- books, manuscripts, canvas and textiles;
- furniture, musical instruments, frames, and altarpieces;
- plastics in art and for art.
Prerequisites for admission
The course is intended for students who have attended fundamental courses in chemistry, and for students who plan to acquire advanced knowledge on the materials chemistry with particular interest to the role of polymeric materials applied to Cultural Heritage.
A fundamental prerequisite to follow the course of Materials Chemistry is to have knowledge of Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry. Therefore, it is recommended to take the Materials Chemistry course in the third year, after having followed the "Organic Chemistry" course.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with the aid of slides (power point presentations) and audio-visual systems (videos).
Teaching Resources
· Course slides accompanied by videos dedicated to some course topics.
· Scientific articles and reviews relevant to the individual topics covered during the course.
· "Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, A compendium of materials and techniques", by Piero Baglioni and David Chelazzi, Rodorigo Giorgi, Springer, 2015.
· "Handbook of Polymers in Stone Conservation", by Elisabetta Princi, Smithers Rapra, 2014.
· "Nanoscience for the Conservation of Works of Art", by Piero Baglioni and David Chelazzi, RSC Publishing, 2013.
· "Materials for Conservation. Organic consolidants, adhesives and coatings", 2nd Edition, by Velson Horie, Elsevier, 2010.
· "Conservation of Plastics: Materials Science, Degradation and Preservation", 1st Edition, by Yvonne Shashoua, Elsevier, 2008.
· "Principles of Polymerization", 4th Edition, by George Odian, Wiley & Interscience, 2004.
· "Macromolecules - 1. Structure and Properties", 2nd Edition, by Hans-Georg Elias, Plenum Press, 1984.
· "Macromolecules - 2. Synthesis, Materials and Technology", 2nd Edition, by Hans-Georg Elias, Plenum Press, 1984.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will consist of an oral examination lasting 30-45 minutes. The corresponding calendars will be published and constantly updated in the online course.
The oral test will aim to ascertain the achievement of the objectives in terms of knowledge and understanding. In particular, the evaluation criteria will focus on the ability of the Student to answer general questions regarding all the topics covered in the course.
Score will vary in the range 18 to 30 out of 30 and will be proportional to the number of correct answers.
The test results will be communicated by e-mail at the end of the exam session and the registration will be conditioned on the acceptance by the Student.
CHIM/05 - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS - University credits: 0
ING-IND/23 - APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Alongi Jenny
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
Office hours by appointment
Building 5, Body B, 3rd floor, room 3051