Comparative anatomy

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
52
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/06
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The teaching will allow the student to acquire the basic notions related to the evolution - and diversity - of Vertebrates in the context of evolutionary pressures exerted by the environment, also employing embryonic development as a tool (Evo-Devo).
As part of the teaching, the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, urogenital, and excretory apparatus, as well as the skeletal (organization of the skull and of the axial and appendicular skeleton) and the muscular systems, the sense organs, and the central and peripheral nervous system will be considered. Interactions among the aforementioned apparatus, organs and systems will also be analyzed.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will acquire the basic knowledge of comparative anatomy of vertebrates and will be able to fully understand the different topics in a transversal way, in order to critically apply in the future knowledge and comprehension of evolution and adaptation. Such abilities will be acquired during lessons where each topic will be transversally presented in order to stimulate questions and comments on current appropriate topics. Critical abilities as well as communication skills will be stimulated during lessons and practical exercitations and evaluated during the examination (mainly at the oral examination). Finally, the transversal and applicative approach of the learned topics will allow the student to develop useful skills for future learning and work.
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
General concepts on evolution of Vertebrates. General characteristics of Vertebrates, an overview on Vertebrate systematics. Concepts of environment-mediated evolution, temperature and salt homeostasis as evolutive forces. Omeothermia.
Embryonic development as a model to study Vertebrate evolution (Evo-Devo). Embryonic tissues and embryonic structures at the phylotypic stage. Vertebrata are Cristata: role of the neural crest cells.
Integument. Embryonic development. Structure and phylogeny of the skin and skin derivatives.
Digestive system. Embryonic development. Phylogeny, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and functional significance of the different tracts of the alimentary canal and its glands.
Respiratory system. Embryonic development and general phylogeny. Structure of gills and lungs in the different classes of Vertebrates.
Circulatory system. Embryonic development. Structure of the heart and vessels. Evolution of the heart and aortic arches in relation to thermoregulation and changes of the respiratory system. Outlines on the phylogeny of venous and lymphatic system. Blood. Morphology of lymphoid and myeloid organs.
Urogenital system. Embryonic development
Excretory system: functional significance of the morphology of the nephron and organization of the renal parenchyma in the various classes of Vertebrates. Outlines on the urinary tracts.
Reproductive system: microscopic anatomy of the gonads in the various classes of Vertebrates. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the genital ducts.
Musculoskeletal system. Skeletal system: embryological origin and general plan of organization of the skull, of appendicular and axial skeleton. Role of neural crest cell-derived structure for the evolution of Vertebrate cranio-facial structures. Muscular system: the evolution of muscular structures related to locomotion.
Sensory organs. Development and general plan of organization with emphasis on eye, ear and lateral line apparatus.
Regulation of body activity: the neuro-endocrine control.
Endocrine glands. Structure and function of endocrine glands.
Nervous system. Development and general plan of organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Morphology, connections and functional significance of different parts of the central nervous system in the various classes of Vertebrates. Peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Autonomic nervous system. Relations between the nervous system and endocrine system.
Prerequisites for admission
It is not necessary to pass propedeutical exams, however, a good understanding of basic scientific language is required.
Teaching methods
Lectures, practical exercises, moments of discussion on topical issues related to Evo-Devo.
Teaching Resources
Giavini E, Menegola E.: Manuale di Anatomia Comparata, EdiSES.
Hildebrand. Analysis of Vertebrate Structure, Wiley.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The written exam (duration 2 hours) will consist of a written test with open answers: 5 short-answer questions (1/6 side A4 sheet) with a maximum score of 2 points each; 2 questions with medium-extended answer (1/2 side A4 sheet) with a maximum score of 5 points each; 1 articulated answer question (1 A4 sheet available), for which a transversal synthesis between the topics is required (maximum score 10). After the written test an oral examination will be performed, in order to discuss teorical issues and perform a pratical test on microscopic anatomy. The minimum mark in the writtent test in order to take the oral examination is 16/30. The minimum sufficient mark in the whole examination is 18/30. In case of final failure, it is necessary to repeat both tests (oral and written). The examination will be totally oral in the case of persistency of emergency or if requested for valid reasons.
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
Professor: Menegola Elena

M - Z

Lesson period
Second semester
The lessons - asynchronous - will be delivered in the form of presentations whose slides will be commented by the teacher. The presentations will be available, without time limits, through the Ariel teaching site. In addition, the presentations will, again on Ariel, also be made available in pdf format. A forum will always be available on the same platform through which learners can communicate directly with the teacher. Then, on a regular basis, synchronous meetings via Microsoft Teams will follow, during which the latest (in chronological order) asynchronous lessons will be the subject of discussion and, if necessary, of in-depth analysis.
The exam methods change from what was expected: the written exam, as illustrated in the assessment criteria, is converted into an oral interview that will take place using, again, the Microsoft Teams platform. During this interview, some of the topics covered during the course will be discussed. All topics contained in the presentations will be potential subject of examination.
Course syllabus
General concepts on evolution of Vertebrates. General characteristics of Vertebrates, an overview on Vertebrate systematics. Concepts of environment-mediated evolution, temperature and salt homeostasis as evolutive forces. Omeothermia.
Embryonic development as a model to study Vertebrate evolution (Evo-Devo). Embryonic tissues and embryonic structures at the phylotypic stage. Vertebrata are Cristata: role of the neural crest cells.
Integument. Embryonic development. Structure and phylogeny of the skin and skin derivatives.
Digestive system. Embryonic development. Phylogeny, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and functional significance of the different tracts of the alimentary canal and its glands.
Respiratory system. Embryonic development and general phylogeny. Structure of gills and lungs in the different classes of Vertebrates.
Circulatory system. Embryonic development. Structure of the heart and vessels. Evolution of the heart and aortic arches in relation to thermoregulation and changes of the respiratory system. Outlines on the phylogeny of venous and lymphatic system. Blood. Morphology of lymphoid and myeloid organs.
Urogenital system. Embryonic development
Excretory system: functional significance of the morphology of the nephron and organization of the renal parenchyma in the various classes of Vertebrates. Outlines on the urinary tracts.
Reproductive system: microscopic anatomy of the gonads in the various classes of Vertebrates. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the genital ducts.
Musculoskeletal system. Skeletal system: embryological origin and general plan of organization of the skull, of appendicular and axial skeleton. Role of neural crest cell-derived structure for the evolution of Vertebrate cranio-facial structures. Muscular system: the evolution of muscular structures related to locomotion.
Sensory organs. Development and general plan of organization with emphasis on eye, ear and lateral line apparatus.
Regulation of body activity: the neuro-endocrine control.
Endocrine glands. Structure and function of endocrine glands.
Nervous system. Development and general plan of organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. Morphology, connections and functional significance of different parts of the central nervous system in the various classes of Vertebrates. Peripheral nervous system: spinal nerves and cranial nerves. Autonomic nervous system. Relations between the nervous system and endocrine system.
Prerequisites for admission
It is not necessary to pass propedeutical exams, however, a good understanding of basic scientific language is required.
Teaching methods
Lectures, practical exercises, moments of discussion on topical issues related to Evo-Devo.
Teaching Resources
Giavini E, Menegola E: Manuale di Anatomia Comparata, EdiSES.
AA.VV. Anatomia Comparata (a cura di Vincenzo Stingo), EdiErmes.
Zavanella T, Cardani R: Manuale di anatomia dei vertebrati, Antonio Delfino Editore.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The oral exam will focus on the description of microscopic preparations observed during the practical exercitations, with hints of connection to the topics covered during the frontal lessons. The exam will be approved following the identification and correct description of two histological preparations (out of a maximum of three proposed). Based on the correctness of the answers and the appropriate use of scientific terminology, the outcome will be considered sufficient, good or excellent. The approved oral examination allows the student to take the written exam. The written exam (duration 2 hours) will consist of a written test with open answers: 5 short-answer questions (1/6 side A4 sheet) with a maximum score of 2 points each; 2 questions with medium-extended answer (1/2 side A4 sheet) with a maximum score of 5 points each; 1 articulated answer question (1 A4 sheet available), for which a transversal synthesis between the topics is required (maximum score 10).. Based on the outcome of the oral exam, the written grade will be confirmed (sufficient oral exam) or increased by one (good oral exam) or by two points (excellent oral exam). The final mark is expressed in thirtieths. The minimum sufficient mark is 18/30. In case of final failure, it is necessary to repeat both tests (oral and written).
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 6
Practicals: 8 hours
Lessons: 44 hours
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
Ask for an appointment via email
Biosciences Dept, building (torre) B, 7th floor