General Chemistry

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The General Chemistry course aims to provide students with a general basis of Chemistry. The course aims to introduce students to the language and methodology of chemical science and to provide them with the tools necessary to understand the teachings of Chemistry through the study of nature's elements and their chemical compounds as well as the examination of chemical reactions and their relative parameters. Interest is given to the study of stoichiometrics, chemical solutions and balances, and in particular to balances in solutions. The course will allow the student to acquire the basic chemistry information necessary to understand chemical processes, even very complex ones, such as those that take place in living organisms or in the environment. The laboratory work aims to provide students with training to eventually work within a laboratory environment.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the General Chemistry teaching, the student must possess the basic theoretical scientific knowledge and acquire adequate skills to address the scientific topics of SSCTA course. The acquisition of good knowledge of stoichiometric calculus, factors that influence the equilibrium of a chemical reaction, the properties of ideal solutions, the structure/properties relationship of atoms will endow the student with the ability to understand and to autonomously face on the applicative and professionalizing chemical disciplines of the course in SSCTA.

The laboratory training module provides the basic preparation necessary for the succeding laboratory activities dealing with the professionalizing goals of SSCTA course. In particular, the lab experiences and the final reports, showing experimental procedures and results, will endow the student with critical and judgment ability necessary for drafting of future scientific reports.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
The lessons (module 1) will be held on Zoom meeting platform on scheduled timetable. The recorded lessons can be also downloaded from the Ariel platform.
The practical lessons (module 2) will be held in presence in suitable classrooms equipped for COVID emergency. The lessons will be simultaneously held on Zoom meeting platform on scheduled timetable, recorded and made available on Ariel platform.
Copncerning the single bench laboratory practical, selected experiences will be conducted in presence (30%). The students will be divided into small groups and they will work single bank. All indications will be reported on the Ariel website of the course. For both laboratory experiences and other experiences, material will always be provided on the Ariel website (ppt and / or video files).
The methods and criteria for participating at face-to-face trainings (presumably turn based), will be described on the lecturers's Ariel website, as will any updates related to the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The program and the reference material will not change.

According to the indication by the University, written and oral exams will take place in presence. In case of emergency both exams will be performed in remote mode using Zoom platform.
Course syllabus
Module 1
Matter, measurement and problem solving: Atoms and molecules; Classification of matter; Physical and chemical transformations and properties; Energy related to the chemical process; The International System of Units of measurement; Reliability of measurement; Conversion factor; Solve problems about conversion of units.
Atoms and elements: Atomic theory; The structure of the atom; Protons; Neutrons; Electrons; The periodic table; Atomic weight; Molar mass.
Molecules, compounds and chemical equations: Chemical bonds; Chemical formulas and molecular models; Elements and compounds; Formula and nomenclature of ion compounds & molecular compounds; Molecular mass and mole; Composition of compounds; Determining the chemical formula; Balancing chemical equations.
Chemical quantities and reactions in aqueous solution: Stoichiometry of reactions; Limiting reactant and overall yield; Concentration and stoichiometric coefficient; Types of solutions and solubility; Precipitation reactions; Molecular and ion equations; Acid-base and gas evolution gas; Redox reactions;
Gas: Pressure; Boyle's, Charles' and Avogadro's laws; Perfect gases and ideal gases law; Applications of the gases' laws; Gas mixtures and partial pressures; and Gases in chemical reactions.
Thermochemistry : Nature of energy; First law of thermodynamics; Heat capacity and work. Constant volume calorimetry; Enthalpy; Constant pressure calorimetry; Relationships involving Hreaz; The Entalpy of reaction from standard formation enthalpy.
The quantum-mechanical model of the atom: Quantum mechanics; Uncertainty and indeterminacy principle; Schrodinger equation and the shape of atomic orbitals.
Periodic trend of properties of elements in the periodic table: Electronic configurations and periodic table; Explanatory power of the quantum-mechanical model; Periodic atomic dimension and effective nuclear charge; Ionic radius and ionization energy; Electron affinity; and Periodic properties of alkaline metals, halogens and noble gases.
The chemical bond: Lewis' theory; Types of chemical bonds; Representing of valence electrons as electron dot structure; Lewis's ionic binding structures; models and reality, Covalent bonds in Lewis structures; Electronegativity and polarity of the bond. Lewis structures of molecular compounds and polyatomic ions; Resonance structures and formal charge; Exceptions to the octet rule (incomplete octets and expanded octets).
Liquids and intermolecular forces. Liquids, solids and gases: a molecular comparison. Intermolecular forces, i.e. dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bond, ion-dipole. Surface tension, viscosity and capillary action; Vaporization and vapor pressure; Sublimation and fusion; Phase diagrams; Properties of water.
Solutions: Types of solutions; Energetics of solutions and solubility; Balancing chemical equations in solutions and factors affecting solubility. Ways to express concentration: molarity, molar fraction, molality. Colligative properties of electrolytes solutions. Chemical kinetics. The rate of a chemical reaction. The kinetic law. Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction.
The chemical equilibrium. The concept of dynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium constant (K) in terms of concentration and pressure. Heterogeneous equilibrium reactions involving solids and liquids. Calculation of the equilibrium constant from concentration measurements; The reaction quotient; Calculating of equilibrium concentrations. The principle of Le Chatelier - Braun.
Acids and bases: Nature of acids and bases; Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius and Brønsted; Acidic strength and acid dissociation constant; Water autoionization and pH; Basic solutions; Acid-base properties of ions and salts. Polyprotic acids and their relative acidic strength and molecular structure. Lewis acids and bases.
Ionic equilibrium in aqueous solution: Buffer solutions; Buffering range and buffer capacity; Solubility equilibrium and constants; Precipitation reactions.
Introduction to thermodynamics: Free energy; Spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes; Entropy and second law of thermodynamics; Heat and variation of entropy in the environment; Gibbs free energy; Free energy variations for non-standard states; Relationship between ΔG ° reaction and equilibrium constant.
Electrochemistry: Balancing of redox reactions; Voltaic cells and spontaneous reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Cell potential; free energy and equilibrium constant. Cell potential and concentration: the Nernst equation.
Nuclear and radiochemical chemistry: Types of radioactive decay; Effects of radiation on living organisms; Radioactivity in medicine and other applications.
Module 2
Solving the stoichiometric problems faced in module 1.
Practical experiences in the laboratory: purification and recrystallization of potassium alum, precipitation and crystallization of lead iodide, copper cycle, determining the concentration of an HCl solution by acid-base titration.
Prerequisites for admission
Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of mathematics (algebra, first and second degree equations, logarithms).
Teaching methods
Module 1
Lessons: 40 hours

Module 2
Practicals: 16 hours
Single bench laboratory practical: 32 hours
Teaching Resources
N. J. Tro, Chimica Un approccio molecolare, EdiSES
K. W. Whitten, R. E. Davis, M. L. Peck, G. G. Stanley, Chimica, Piccin
P. Atkins, L. Jones, Chimica Generale, Zanichelli
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written. The student is admitted to the written exam only if he has previously delivered the Laboratory Report, except for students exempted from the Laboratory. The Laboratory Report will be included in the final evaluation.
Oral. The student is admitted to the exam only if the written test score will be higher than or equal to 16/30.
Module 1
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Di Carlo Gabriele
Module 2
Practicals: 16 hours
Single bench laboratory practical: 32 hours
Educational website(s)