General pathology

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course of General Pathology aims to provide the tools and elements to analyze the etiopathogenesis of human diseases. In particular, the course analyzes the acute, chronic and reparative inflammatory reaction and the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the immune system.
The course also aims to provide students with knowledge of cell physiopathology and of metabolic, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the General Pathology Course, students will need to know how to frame the etiopathogenesis of human diseases, classifying them in the fundamental groups (cardiovascular, metabolic, immune, neoplastic, etc.).
In particular, the students should be able to identify, for each pathological aspect, a molecular / cellular / tissue cause, indicating the primary etiological agent. It also requires that the fundamental pathogenetic mechanisms of the diseases addressed be understood.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Teaching methods:
The course will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform or by asynchronous lessons (video lessons uploaded on ARIEL platform).
Teaching materials
Course program and reference materials will not change.
Learning verification procedures and assessment criteria
The exam will be an oral test through the Microsoft Teams platform or, if permitted, in person as an oral test.
Course syllabus
Tissue response to damage: Inflammation.
Acute inflammation: vascular phase; adhesion molecules and chemotaxis; Chemical mediators of inflammation: vasoactive amines, plasma proteins, arachidonic acid metabolites, cytokines and chemokines, nitric oxide (NO), oxygen-derived free radicals. Mononuclear phagocytes: pathogen recognition, receptors of innate immunity.
Chronic inflammation: cell mediators, granuloma, fibrosis.
Systemic responses to inflammation: fever, acute phase proteins, leukocytosis. Resolution of the inflammatory process. Repair by healing. Scar formation and fibrosis

Immunology and immunopathology
Innate and acquired immunity. The antigen recognition molecules: T Cell Receptor, B Cell Receptor; Major histocompatibility complex. Humoral immunity: B lymphocytes and antibodies, structure and functions. Primary and secondary antibody response. Monoclonal antibodies. Cell-mediated immunity: helper and cytotoxic T cells, antigen presentation. Cell cooperation in immune response, interleukins. Immunological tolerance and autoimmunity. Hypersensitivity reactions (Type I, II, III and IV). Vaccines.


Cellular pathology. Adaptation, response, damage. Accumulation diseases. Cell death: apoptosis and necrosis.

Water metabolism. Edema. Volume control and pathological aspects. Shock.

Nomenclature and classification. benign and malignant tumors. Characteristics of the tumor cell: proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, angiogenesis. Carcinogenesis: mutations, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, cancer stem cells. Induced oncogenesis: chemical and viral. Tumor-host: cachexia, paraneoplastic syndromes, tumor markers.

Cardiovascular diseases
ischemia and infarction. Atherosclerosis, hemostasis and thrombosis, embolism. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity and diabetes.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic concepts of human anatomy and physiology, principles of cell biology
Teaching methods
The teaching is delivered through lectures held by the two teachers of the course.
Teaching Resources
Strayer - Rubin
Patologia Generale e Anatomia Patologica
Piccin, 2019 (II ed. italiana, VII ed. inglese)

Fondamenti di Patologia e di Fisiopatologia
Edra, IX edizione 2014

Celotti Fabio
Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia
Edises, II Edizione 2013

Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai
Le basi dell'Immunologia
Edra, 2015

Mak, Saunders
Fondamenti di Immunologia
Zanichelli, 2012
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will include an oral exam consisting of two oral sub-tests carried out with the two teachers of the course and, concerning in a conceptual way, PHYSIOPATHOLOGY and IMMUNOLOGY. Each sub-test will include at least two questions and the final grade of the test will be represented by the mathematical average of the partial grades of the sub-tests.
Lessons: 70 hours