General Pathology

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
MED/04
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course of General Pathology aims to provide the tools to understand the molecular mechanisms of human diseases for a rational identification of therapeutic targets. In addition, the course will provide the bases for understanding the mechanisms of inflammation and immune defenses, innate and acquired, implemented by the host.
The course includes a series of lectures related to the pathogenesis of the most common organ-specific diseases, including details on terms and abbreviations used in medical terminology, to provide the student with a background knowledge for future work.
Expected learning outcomes
The students will be able to define the molecular mechanisms of human diseases and the basis of immunity and inflammation. They will be able to recognize the causes (aetiology) and the mechanisms (pathogenesis) of diseases, and to understand and use common medical words and meanings. Moreover, the students will develop methods to investigate any disease and to critically analyze scientific publications on the field.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AK

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
The teaching activities of the second semester of the Academic Year 2020.2021 will be delivered either in presence and by remote following the official time schedule .All type of lessons will be available by remote in a synchronous way, taped and made available to the students on the Ariel repository. Depending on the number of students allowed in each classroom, each student will have to reserve a seat using the APP Orari made available by the University.
In case the lessons in presence will stop for sanitary reasons, they will continue by remote following the official time schedule.
The program and the bibliography of the course, will not change
Exams: The exam will be a written test or oral in presence, as described for the previous year. However, if the rules of the sanitary emergency will change, the exams will be all oral using the Teams platforms.
Course syllabus
Cellular and tissue homeostasis: health conditions, cellular damage, signs and symptoms of diseases. Extrinsic causes of disease: physical, chemical, environmental agents, pathogenic microorganisms. Intrinsic causes of disease: genetic, developmental disorders, autoimmunity
Cellular stress response: Acute and chronic reversible damage; adaptive tissue responses (atrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia). Irreversible damage: cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy). Accumulation disorders: steatosis, glycogenosis, amyloidosis
Acute inflammation
Vascular events, adhesion molecules, chemotaxis and chemokines, pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines, plasma mediators (vasoactive amines, arachidonic acid metabolites, nitric oxide). The complement system
Cell involved in inflammation: monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, mastocytes: characteristics and functions. Opsonization and phagocytosis. Macrophage receptors for phagocytosis and activation (TLR, PAMPS, DAMS), pathogen killing (lysosomal enzymes, respiratory burst, oxygen and nitrogen radicas)
Chronic inflammation: formation of chronic exudate, granuloma, tissue fibrosis.
Systemic inflammatory responses: fever, acute phase proteins, leukocytosis. Resolution of the inflammatory process. Characteristics of wound healing. Scar formation and fibrosis. Angiogenesis
Immunology and Immunopathology
Features of innate and acquired immunity. Definition of antigen. Origin and characteristics of T and B lymphocytes. Structure of the antigen recognition molecules: T Cell Receptor (TCR), B Cell Receptor (BCR); Major histocompatibility complex molecules.
Humoral immunity: B lymphocytes and antibodies, structure and functions. Primary and secondary antibody response. Monoclonal antibodies: production, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Cell-mediated immunity: helper and cytotoxic T cells, antigen presentation. Cell cooperation in immune response, interleukins. Immunological tolerance.
Autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases. Hypersensitivity reactions (Type I, II, III and IV). Vaccines.
Oncology
Tumor Epidemiology. Nomenclature, classification, functional and morphological features of benign and malignant tumors. Invasiveness and characteristics of the metastatic process. Carcinogenesis: general principles. Protooncogenes, oncogene and oncosuppressor genes. Chemical carcinogenesis. Pathigens related tumors. Familial and hereditary cancers. Immunotherapy and tumor gene therapy. Tumor prevention and screening.
Genetic diseases
Autosomal dominant or recessive or etherocromosomal-related diseases. Chromosomal abnormalities .
Pathophysiology of blood:
Anemias, hemorrhagic diseases and coagulation disorders
Pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases
Atherosclerosis: formation, growth and development of atherosclerotic plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis; hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome Consequences of atherosclerosis: ictus, infarct, hemorrhages, thrombosis.
Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract
Gastric diseases: gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers.
Hepatic diseases: hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, biliary tract diseases
Pathophysiology of the endocrine system
Disorders of endocrine axes
Thyroid diseases: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism
Pathophysiology of endocrine pancreas: diabetes mellitus
Elements of neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease
Prerequisites for admission
The course of General Pathology is scheduled in the II semester of the II year. There are no mandatory exams to be passed before the General pathology test. However, it is strongly recommended to pass the exams of Biology, Human anatomy and Physiology, Microbiology and Biochemistry before the exam of General Pathology
Teaching methods
The course consists of lectures given by the Professor of the Course and occasionally seminars by external experts on particular subjects. Power point presentations or short videos are usually used and are provided to the students in the Ariel site of the course
Teaching Resources
Fabio Celotti,
Patologia generale e fisiopatologia
II Edizione, EdiSES. 2013 con aggiornamenti on line
Pontieri GM
Elementi di Patologia generale & Fisiopatologia generale, IV Ed
Piccin 2018
L. Altucci, G. Berton et al Patologia generale Volume I 2019 Ed. Idelson-Gnocchi
Kumar V et al Robbins. Fondamenti di Patologia e Fisiopatologia
IX edizione- EDRA 2013
Raphael Rubin
Patologia generale. Patologia d'organo e molecolare
Piccin Giugno 2014
All the material from the lectures and additional literature is provided by the teacher and stored in the Ariel web site of the course of General Pathology
Assessment methods and Criteria
At the end of the course of General Pathology the students will have the choice to take an oral exam or a written test.
The oral exam occurs in the presence of the Professor responsible of the Course and usually lasts approximatively 20-30 minutes. It consists of questions and discussion on different subjects related to the program of the Course. At the end the student will pass the exam with a score be equal or greater than 18/30. For exceptional performances, the score may go up to 30/30 cum laude.
The written test consists in brief answers (about one A4 page) to 5 open questions, chosen at random for each student among a list of 120 questions regarding all the subjects of the program. The questions are different in each academic year and are made available to the students at the end of the lessons on the Ariel web site.
Each student has 15 min/answer, therefore the total length of the written test is 75 minutes.
A score from 1 to 6 is assigned to each answer; to pass the test, the total score must be equal or greater than 18/30. For exceptional tests, the score may go up to 30/30 cum laude. The student must answer to all the questions of the test. The student can withdraw before the end of the test, and that will be recorded, and can repeat the exam at the next available date.
The student with insufficient score in the written test has to take the oral test in the next available date.
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours

Linea LZ

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
The teaching activities of the second semester of the Academic Year 2020.2021 will be delivered either in presence and by remote following the official time schedule .All type of lessons will be available by remote in a synchronous way, taped and made available to the students on the Ariel repository. Depending on the number of students allowed in each classroom, each student will have to reserve a seat using the APP Orari made available by the University.

In case the lessons in presence will stop for sanitary reasons, they will continue by remote following the official time schedule.

The program and the bibliography of the course, will not change

Exams: The exam will be a written test or oral in presence, as described for the previous year. However, if the rules of the sanitary emergency will change, the exams will be all oral using the Teams platforms.
Course syllabus
Cellular and tissue homeostasis: health conditions, cellular damage, signs and symptoms of diseases. Extrinsic causes of disease: physical, chemical, environmental agents, pathogenic microorganisms. Intrinsic causes of disease: genetic, developmental disorders, autoimmunity
Cellular stress response: Acute and chronic reversible damage; adaptive tissue responses (atrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia). Irreversible damage: cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy). Accumulation disorders: steatosis, glycogenosis, amyloidosis
Acute inflammation
Vascular events, adhesion molecules, chemotaxis and chemokines, pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines, plasma mediators (vasoactive amines, arachidonic acid metabolites, nitric oxide). The complement system
Cell involved in inflammation: monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, mastocytes: characteristics and functions. Opsonization and phagocytosis. Macrophage receptors for phagocytosis and activation (TLR, PAMPS, DAMS), pathogen killing (lysosomal enzymes, respiratory burst, oxygen and nitrogen radicas)
Chronic inflammation: formation of chronic exudate, granuloma, tissue fibrosis.
Systemic inflammatory responses: fever, acute phase proteins, leukocytosis. Resolution of the inflammatory process. Characteristics of wound healing. Scar formation and fibrosis. Angiogenesis
Immunology and Immunopathology
Features of innate and acquired immunity. Definition of antigen. Origin and characteristics of T and B lymphocytes. Structure of the antigen recognition molecules: T Cell Receptor (TCR), B Cell Receptor (BCR); Major histocompatibility complex molecules.
Humoral immunity: B lymphocytes and antibodies, structure and functions. Primary and secondary antibody response. Monoclonal antibodies: production, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Cell-mediated immunity: helper and cytotoxic T cells, antigen presentation. Cell cooperation in immune response, interleukins. Immunological tolerance.
Autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases. Hypersensitivity reactions (Type I, II, III and IV). Vaccines.
Oncology
Tumor Epidemiology. Nomenclature, classification, functional and morphological features of benign and malignant tumors. Invasiveness and characteristics of the metastatic process. Carcinogenesis: general principles. Protooncogenes, oncogene and oncosuppressor genes. Chemical carcinogenesis. Pathigens related tumors. Familial and hereditary cancers. Immunotherapy and tumor gene therapy. Tumor prevention and screening.
Genetic diseases
Autosomal dominant or recessive or etherocromosomal-related diseases. Chromosomal abnormalities .
Pathophysiology of blood:
Anemias, hemorrhagic diseases and coagulation disorders
Pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases
Atherosclerosis: formation, growth and development of atherosclerotic plaque. Risk factors for atherosclerosis; hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome Consequences of atherosclerosis: ictus, infarct, hemorrhages, thrombosis.
Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract
Gastric diseases: gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers.
Hepatic diseases: hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, biliary tract diseases
Pathophysiology of the endocrine system
Disorders of endocrine axes
Thyroid diseases: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism
Pathophysiology of endocrine pancreas: diabetes mellitus
Elements of neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease
Prerequisites for admission
The course of General Pathology is scheduled in the II semester of the II year. There are no mandatory exams to be passed before the General pathology test. However, it is strongly recommended to pass the exams of Biology, Human anatomy and Physiology, Microbiology and Biochemistry before the exam of General Pathology
Teaching methods
The course consists of lectures given by the Professor of the Course and occasionally seminars by external experts on particular subjects. Power point presentations or short videos are usually used and are provided to the students in the Ariel site of the course
Teaching Resources
Fabio Celotti,
Patologia generale e fisiopatologia
II Edizione, EdiSES. 2013 with on line updates

Pontieri GM Elementi di Patologia generale & Fisiopatologia generale, IV Ed
Piccin 2018
Kumar V et al Robbins. Fondamenti di Patologia e Fisiopatologia
IX edizione- EDRA 2013
Patologia generale. Patologia d'organo e molecolare
Raphael Rubin
Piccin Giugno 2014

All the material from the lectures and additional literature is provided by the Professor and stored in the Ariel web site of the course of General Pathology
Assessment methods and Criteria
At the end of the course of General Pathology the students will have the choice to take an oral exam or a written test.
The oral exam occurs in the presence of the Professor responsible of the Course and usually lasts approximatively 20-30 minutes. It consists of questions and discussion on different subjects related to the program of the Course. At the end the student will pass the exam with a score be equal or greater than 18/30. For exceptional performances, the score may go up to 30/30 cum laude.
The written test consists in brief answers (about one A4 page) to 5 open questions, chosen at random for each student among a list of 120 questions regarding all the subjects of the program. The questions are different in each academic year and are made available to the students at the end of the lessons on the Ariel web site.
Each student has 15 min/answer, therefore the total length of the written test is 75 minutes.
A score from 1 to 6 is assigned to each answer; to pass the test, the total score must be equal or greater than 18/30. For exceptional tests, the score may go up to 30/30 cum laude. The student must answer to all the questions of the test. The student can withdraw before the end of the test, and that will be recorded, and can repeat the exam at the next available date.
The student with insufficient score in the written test has to take the oral test in the next available date.
MED/04 - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Basilico Nicoletta