General Pathology and Physiopathology

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
In the course of General Pathology and pathophysiology are delineated the most important aspects of modern cellular and molecular pathology, as well as multicellular pathologic processes regarding degenerative, inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Cellular physiopathology and the mechanisms underlying the pathology of specific organs and integrated functions are also considered.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student is expected to:
● Have sufficient information to understand, describe and recognize the causes and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, as well as the aetiopathogenesis of the most important alterations affecting the structures, the functions and the integrated controlling mechanisms of the organism.
● Know how to examine the biological and molecular aspects of the main human pathological conditions taking the cell as reference.
● Know how to go from the most basic cellular features to tissue damage and the possible consequences on alterations of body homeostasis (disease).
● To be able to update his/her knowledge also by reading qualified scientific journals
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lectures will still take place in classrooms, if students can't reach the buildings we might consider alternative ways.
Course syllabus
Be acquainted with the oncogenes:
a) activation mechanisms
b) biological activity of protein products
Have knowledge of tumor suppressor genes:
a) tumor suppressors and cell cycle
b) tumor suppressors and apoptosis
c) interaction between oncogenes and tumor suppressors
d) "caretaker" and "gate keeper" genes

Consider the etiology of tumors:
a) chemical carcinogenesis: chemicals as mutagenic and carcinogenic agents
b) physical carcinogenesis: ionizing radiation and UV radiation
c) viral carcinogenesis: DNA and RNA viruses

Illustrate the formation of stroma in tumors and the mechanisms of angiogenesis (tumor microenvironment)
Define the molecular and genetic aspects of invasiveness and metastases.

Be acquainted with the relationship between tumors and hormones
Define the relationship between immunity and cancer
Learn about neoplastic cachexia and paraneoplastic syndromes.
Describe the particular characteristics of leukemias and lymphomas
Have knowledge of tumor markers, their meaning and their use


The student must be familiar with the physiopathology topics already included among those of the General Pathology listed above (e.g. fever in the context of systemic inflammation manifestations), and also have knowledge of the following topics:

- Acid base balance
- Hypertension
- Shock
- Anemias
- Thrombosis
- Atherosclerosis
- Diabetes
- Gout
- Aging
- Obesity
Prerequisites for admission
Basics of mathematic and statistic, Biology, Histology, Human Anatomy, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physiology
Teaching methods
Lectures. Slides made available to students on Ariel platform
Teaching Resources
Pontieri: "Patologia Generale"
Robbins & Cotran "Le basi patologiche delle malattie"
Majno & Joris "Cellule, tessuti e malattia"

Rubin " Patologia generale"
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral exam
Lessons: 96 hours