Histological and Cytological Tecniques

A.Y. 2020/2021
5
Max ECTS
55
Overall hours
SSD
MED/08
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Upon completion of the course the student will be able to:
1.know the organization of an Anatomic Pathology Laboratory
2.know the diagnostic activities and workflow of an Anatomic Pathology Laboratory
3.know the techniques for histological and cytological sample preparation.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will acquire knowledge on sample preparation techniques for histological and cytological analysis and diagnosis; the student will also understand the workflow of laboratory activities. This knowledge will be preparatory for the understanding and the application of these techniques for histopathological and cyto-pathological diagnostic activities and the execution during pathology internship.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
- The program of the course will not be modified
- Teaching resources will not be modified
- Teaching method: on-line teaching on Microsoft Teams platform
- Assessment method: oral exam on Microsoft Teams platform
Course syllabus
ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
∙ Definition, scope and activities
PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
∙ Organization and personnel
AUTOPSY:
∙ Regulatory framework, dissection room and instruments, personnel
OPTICAL/LIGHT MICROSCOPE
∙ Components. Objective lens and oil immersion objective. Polarizing microscope. Digital microscope.
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
∙ Regulatory framework
∙ Specimen types
∙ Tracking
∙ Specimen collection, transport, preservation and storage
∙ Specimen acceptance
∙ Fixation and fixatives
∙ Sampling ("grossing")
∙ Tumor staging and TNM
∙ Tissue processing
∙ Tissue embedding
∙ Paraffin-embedded tissue block preparation
∙ Cutting and microtomes
∙ Unstained section preparation
∙ Cryosectioning
∙ Intraoperative examination
∙ Histopathological report
HISTOLOGICAL STAINS
∙ Staining technique
∙ Morphological stains
∙ Special stains
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
∙ Transmission electron microscope
∙ Scanning electron microscope
∙ Sample preparation
∙ Ultrastructural examination
CYTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
∙ Specimens
∙ Preservatives and fixatives
∙ Sample preparation
∙ Smear
∙ Cytocentrifugation
∙ Thin-layer preparation
∙ Cell-block
∙ Fine needle aspiration
∙ Pap-test
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY
∙ Sample preparation
∙ Blocking steps
∙ Antigen retrieval
∙ Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies
∙ Primary and secondary antibodies
∙ Direct detection method
∙ Indirect detection methods
∙ Labeling methods
∙ Immunofluorescence
∙ Chromogenic immunohistochemistry
∙ Controls
∙ Applications and most common antibodies
MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY
∙ Molecular pathology: definition, scope and activities
∙ Workflow: phases and laboratory organization
∙ Pre-analytical phase: sample evaluation and preparation
∙ Pre-analytical phase: test selection
∙ Analytical phase: in situ hybridization techniques
∙ Analytical phase: sequencing techniques
∙ Analytical phase: additional techniques (gene expression analyses, methylation analysis)
∙ Post-analytical phase (data analysis and interpretation and report)
BIOBANKS
∙ Definition, scope and regulatory framework
PATHOLOGY LABORATORY WORK ENVIRONMENT
∙ Occupational hazard
∙ Chemical hazards
∙ Physical hazards
∙ Personal protective equipments
Prerequisites for admission
Basic knowledges of anatomy and molecular biology
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Practical exercises
Teaching Resources
Il materiale didattico viene messo a disposizione sulla piattaforma Ariel.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral exam preceded by written test based on an open question.
The written test is preparatory and no specific mark will be assigned
MED/08 - PATHOLOGY - University credits: 5
Practicals: 15 hours
Lessons: 40 hours