Individual sports and athletics: training theory and methodology

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
M-EDF/01 M-EDF/02
Learning objectives
The course provides theoretical and practical knowledge in achieving performance in the main sports types based on the concept of evidence-based training.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire knowledge and skills in the realization and innovation of sports for diverse age groups, with special attention to elite sports, as concerns teaching, methodology, and techniques applicable to different types of sports.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Course syllabus
General topics
1. Why athletes train
2. Adaptation: basic elements
3. Stress, fatigue, supercompensation
4. Training: international terminology
5. Evolution of training: the major methods, the fundamental stages in the evolution of training theory and methodology
6. Modern methodology of training for elite competition: experience- and evidence-based training
7. Specificities of youth training
8. Warm-up: methodology and application in training and match preparation
9. Stretching: methodology and application in training and match preparation
10. Overtraining: classification and prevention
11. Match day: methodology and planning
12. Doping: cultural actions and methods to fight it
13. Functional models, performance models, physiological models
14. Models and means of didactic training
15. Models and means of technical training
16. Talent: identification, selection, development, maintenance, modern evidence-based approaches
17. Recovery: strategies and means for speeding up recovery time between training and tight scheduling and elite competition sports events
18. Injury prevention programs and methods

1. Endurance: definition, classification in relation to scientific evidence and field practice
2. Authors - the major schools - applications
3. Central and peripheral aerobic components: from the physiological model to training
4. Endurance training-induced modifications
5. Special endurance: content differentiated by sports type
6. Evolution of endurance training methodology
7. Endurance: training means and methods (short, medium, and long competitions and ultraendurance events)
8. Aerobic lipid power endurance: definition, scientific evidence, training
9. History and classification of intermittent training; its use for developing endurance in individual and team sports
10. Greater volume or greater intensity? Consequences and effects on performance in endurance athletes
11. Training at high altitude for enhancing endurance performance. Overview of training at high altitude.
12. Factors that differentiate the performance of high-altitude runners (Kenyans, Ethiopians) from "Caucasian" runners
13. High-intensity interval training (HIIT)
14. The importance of neuromuscular factors and combined strength-endurance training: methods and effects on performance
15. Periodization: examples of macrocycles for training for marathon running and cross-country skiing
16. Sensitive phases in the development of endurance
17. Peak high performance: basics of periodization in endurance sports
18. Preparation for indoor and outdoor endurance competition events: logistics, tactics, and strategies
19. Methodology and planning for endurance competition event day

Strength and Speed
1. General introduction to power sports
2. Strength and speed: scientific language and glossary of technical terms
3. Muscle strengthening: major authors and methods
4. Muscle strength: definition and classification in scientific, methodological, and technical contexts
5. Mechanisms of muscle strengthening: theoretical and practical aspects
6. Loading, overloading, and training intensity
7. Concepts of training, athletic preparation, and return to sports
8. Concepts of muscle strength and muscle power
9. Training means and methods in different expressions of strength
10. Training for maximum strength
11. Training for muscle power
12. Means and methods for increasing muscle mass in competition sports and fitness
13. Innovative aspects for improving muscle power
14. Training with blood flow restriction protocols
15. Means and methods of increasing muscle power in acyclical and cyclical sports
16. Intermittent and "intermittent-strength" training in individual sports and intermittent acyclical sports
17. Training capacity of acceleration, sprint, high-speed running, and factors that regulate strength, technique, and rhythm
18. Elements for planning and periodization of muscle strengthening
19. Monitoring muscle strengthening and strength training
20. Muscle strengthening in young persons
21. Track and Field (Throw events): didactics of learning Olympic lifting movements (theoretical and practical aspects)
Prerequisites for admission
No previous knowledge is necessary insofar as graduate students will have passed their admissions interview in which they demonstrated their knowledge level, as required by study regulations.
Teaching methods
The theoretical content is presented via frontal lectures with the aid of computers and multimedia support. The practical exercises in some topics are conducted at sports facilities.
Teaching Resources
Reference material

1. Alberti G., Garufi M., Silvaggi N.: "L'allenamento della forza a bassa velocità: il metodo della serie lenta a scalare" Calzetti e Mariucci Editori, luglio 2012.
2. Alberti G.: "Rivalutazione della ginnastica respiratoria a scuola" Franco Angeli Editore, 2016.
3. Arcelli E.: "Che cos'è l'allenamento" - Sperling & Kupfer; Milano, 1990.
4. Arcelli E.: "Acido lattico e prestazione" - Cooperativa Dante Editrice; Vigevano, 1995.
5. Arcelli E.: "Voglio correre" - Sperling & Kupfer; Milano, 2012.
6. A.A.V.V.: "The role of speed in athletic events" - Atleticastudi; n. 3-4-5/1996; FIDAL, Centro Studi e Ricerche; Roma, 1996.
7. A.A.V.V.: "Le basi scientifiche dell'allenamento in Altletica Leggera" - Atleticastudi; suppl. al n. 1-4/2005; FIDAL, Centro Studi e Ricerche; Roma, 2005.
8. Bellotti P., Zanon S.: "Il movimento dell'uomo, storia di un concetto" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2008.
9. Bellotti P., Zanon S.: "Storia del concetto di allenamento" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2009.
10. Bisciotti GN.: "Teoria e metodologia del movimento umano" - Teknosport; Ancona, 2000.
11. Bosco C.: "La forza muscolare-aspetti fisiologici ed applicazioni pratiche" - S.S.S.; Roma, 1997.
12. Cavagna G.A.: "Muscolo e Locomozione" - Raffaello Cortina Editore; Milano, 1988
13. Chatard J.C. "Allenamento e Recupero - lottare contro il doping gestendo il recupero fisico" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2008.
14. Cometti G.: "Metodi moderni di potenziamento muscolare - Aspetti teorici" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 1997.
15. Cometti G.: "Metodi moderni di potenziamento muscolare - Aspetti pratici" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 1998.
16. Cometti G.: "Esercizi e circuiti per l'allenamento e il potenziamento muscolare" - in abbinamento due videocassette come sussidio didattico - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 1998.
17. Cometti G.: "Forza e velocità nell'allenamento del calciatore" - Edizioni Correre; Milano, 2002.
18. Cometti G.: "Manuale di potenziamento muscolare" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2002.
19. Cometti G., Cometti D.: "La pliometria, origini, teorie, allenamento." Edizione italiana a cura di Alberti G. - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2010.
20. Dal Monte A., Faina M.: "Valutazione dell'atleta - Analisi funzionale e biomeccanica della capacità di prestazione" - UTET, 1999.
21. di Prampero P.E.: "La locomozione umana su terra, in acqua, in aria. Fatti e Teorie" - Edi Ermes; Milano, 1985.
22. Evangelista P.: "DCSS Power Mechanics for power Lifters" - Sandro Ciccarelli Editore, Napoli 2011.
23. Ferlito A., Evangelista P.: "Project Strenght", Project Editions, 2016
24. Fröhner G.: "Principi dell'allenamento giovanile-la capacità di carico nell'età infantile e giovanile" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2008.
25. Goldemberg L., Twist P.: "Strenght ball training" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2009.
26. Gregory G. H., Triplett N.T.: "Essentials of strength training and conditioning", National Strength and Conditioning Association - Human Kinetic, 4th ed., Champaign, 2000.
27. Howley E.T.: "Manuale per l'istruttore di fitness" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2002.
28. La Torre al.: " Allenare per vincere"- SDS edizioni , Roma 2016.
29. Komi P.V.: "Strength and power in sport" - second edition - Edited by P.V. Komi, Blakwell Science; Oxford, 2005.
30. Neri E., Evangelista P.: "Project Calisthenics", Project Editions, 2018.
31. NSCA.: " Il manuale del personal trainer" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2010.
32. Platonov V.: "Fondamenti dell'allenamento e dell'attività di gara" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2004.
33. Platonov V.: "L'organizzazione dell'allenamento e dell'attività di gara" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2004.
34. Roi G.S., Alberti G.: "Preparazione atletica del calciatore, dall'età evolutiva alla maturità" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2008.
35. Roncari A., Evangelista P.: "Project Exercise", Project Editions, 2017.
36. Roncari A., Evangelista P.: "Fitness Posturale", vol.1-2, Project Editions, 2019.
37. Sassi A.: "Allenamento e sovrallenamento" Edi Ermes; Milano, 1997
38. Shephard R.- Astrand P.O.: "Endurance in Sport" Blackwell Scientific Editor(s): Wiley Library, second edition, 2002.
39. Urso A.: "Pesistica" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2011.
40. Weineck J.: "L'allenamento ottimale" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2009.
41. Verkhoshansky J.: "Mezzi e metodi per l'allenamento della forza esplosiva - Tutto sul metodo d'urto" - S.S.S.; Roma, 1997.
42. Vittori C.: "L'allenamento del giovane corridore dai 12 ai 19 anni" - Atleticastudi; suppl. al n. 1-2/1997; FIDAL, Centro Studi e Ricerche; Roma, 1997.
43. Vittori C.: "La pratica dell'allenamento" - Atleticastudi; suppl. alla rivista Atleticastudi; FIDAL, Centro Studi e Ricerche; Roma, 2003.
44. Vittori C.: "Nervi e cuore saldi" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2014.
45. Wilmore J.H., Costill D.L.: "Fisiologia dell'esercizio fisico e dello sport" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2005.
46. Zatsiorsky V.M., Kraemer W.J.: "Scienza e pratica dell'allenamento della forza" - Calzetti-Mariucci; Perugia, 2008.

Other reference material mentioned during lectures will be uploaded on the Ariel portal.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written exam, 1.5 hours allowed. The questions will cover the entire course content, as described in the course program. Students will select one question from among the three on each topic (one for Strength and one for Endurance). The final grade is expressed in 30/30 and based on the mean of the grades for the two exams.
M-EDF/02 - SPORT SCIENCES AND METHODOLOGY - University credits: 9
Lessons: 72 hours
Monday and Friday, from 9.00 to 17.00
Via Giuseppe Colombo 71, 2nd Building, mezzanine floor ; via Skype: emiliano_ce; via Teams:
To be agreed via email.
Via Giuseppe Colombo 71, Edificio 2, Piano terra, Milano