Medicinal Chemistry 1

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide the student with:
a) the knowledge that underlies the design and development of new active ingredients having the necessary requisites to be able to become drug candidates;
b) a good knowledge of the properties, the mechanisms of action and the use of the different classes of drugs treated;
c) the fundamental knowledge on the structure-activity relationships for the purpose of a more rational design aimed at a therapeutic effect free from contraindications and toxic effects;
d) indications concerning the synthetic methods used for the preparation of some of the drugs considered.
Expected learning outcomes
The student must demonstrate to have acquired what is foreseen by the educational objectives.
In particular, the student must demonstrate that he / she has acquired and understood:
a) the basic concepts of Medicinal Chemistry and the fundamental elements of drug design;
b) the notions provided on the chemical, chemical-physical, structural properties and on the mechanism of action of the drugs belonging to the therapeutic classes considered and the main synthetic strategies that can be used for the preparation of drugs.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AK

Lesson period
Didactic methods
The lessons scheduled for the first semester will be held synchronously using the Microsoft Teams Platform. If the regulations concerning social distancing allow it and if classrooms are available, part of the lessons will be held in person, guaranteeing participation even for students not present in the classroom through connection with the Microsoft Teams Platform. The methods and criteria for participating in face-to-face lessons will be published on the Ariel pages of the teaching as well as notices relating to any update related to the evolution of the legislation imposed by Covid-19.
The recording of the lessons and the material used during the lessons will be made available on the Ariel Platform to allow their use in asynchronous mode.

Program and reference material
The program and reference material will not change

Methods for verifying learning and evaluation criteria.
As in the past, the exam will take place in written and oral form and, where the regulations allow it, in presence. In the latter case, students unable to reach the classroom will have the option of taking the exam remotely.
The modalities with which the tests will be organized and the evaluation criteria will not change.

Remote exams will be carried out using the Microsoft Teams Platform and, in the manner illustrated on the University portal ( Students enrolled in the exam will be sent by e-mail all the information necessary for taking the exam.
The possibility of taking part-time tests at the end of the lessons held in the first and second semester for attending students is confirmed. Also in this case the tests will be carried out electronically or in presence according to the regulations in force on the dates that will be set for their performance.
Course syllabus
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry:
The discovery and development of new drugs
Biotechnology for the discovery and development of new drugs
Molecular mechanisms of drug action
The molecular targets of drugs
Receptors as drug targets
Enzymes as targets for drugs
Drug design and development:
Sources of research for lead compounds
New "Drug design" strategies
Structure-activity relationships (SAR).
Pharmacophore research.
Isosteria and bioisosteria
Chemical-physical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and pharmacokinetics
Prodrugs (prodrugs)
Quantitative Relationships Structure-Activity (QSAR)
Combinatorial chemistry as a research tool.

Special part:
Antiseptics and disinfectants
Synthetic antibacterials
Antimycobacterial drugs
Antiparasitic drugs
Antimalarial drugs
Anthelmintic drugs
Antifungal drugs
Antiviral drugs
Anti-cancer drugs
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones and related drugs
Steroid hormones (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens, progestins and androgens) and related therapeutic agents
Thyroid hormones and related medications;
Peptide hormones of the pancreas involved in carbohydrate metabolism and hypoglycemic drugs.
Prerequisites for admission
To adequately address the contents of the course it is necessary for the student to have a good knowledge of organic chemistry and biological chemistry and possess the basic notions of physiology.
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
All the teaching material shown during the lectures will be made available to students on the Ariel platform.
Students will learn more about the treated topics using the following texts:
1. G. L. Patrick: an introduction to Medicinal Chemistry. (Last edition) - Oxford University Press.
2. L. Lemke, D. A. Williams: Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, (Last Edition) Ed. Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
3. A. Gasco, F. Gualtieri, C. Melchiorre: Chimica farmaceutica - Zanichelli
Seconda edizione 2020
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be divided into 2 tests.
Written test:
o The written test, consisting of open questions and a multiple choice questionnaire, will focus on all the topics of the program. The student must demonstrate that he has understood, and is able to use, the fundamental concepts of each topic.
o The written mark is immediately recorded after the correction and the student can accept or reject it within the established time. Before this deadline, the teacher sets a meeting in which the students who so wish can view the correct written papers.
Oral exam:
Discussion of the written test and any further details on the topics not adequately developed in the first test.
There are seven appeals in the calendar year and students can participate in consecutive tests without any restrictions.
For attending students, there is also the unique possibility of taking the exam with two partial written tests (end of January and June) concerning, respectively, the program carried out in the first semester and that carried out in the second semester. The second part can be accessed, if a vote of at least 18/30 is reached in the first part. Otherwise, the student must go to the single appeals or wait for the two partial tests of the following year.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 10
Lessons: 80 hours

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Lesson period
The lessons of the first semester will be performed, as reported in the academic timeline, in synch and with a remotely mode, using the Microsoft Teams Platform or alternatively Zoom. Concerning the lessons of the second semester, if the social distance is still in force, part of them will be carried out face-to-face (approximately 50%) with the possibility, for all the students not present in the classroom, to simultaneously connect on the Microsoft Teams Platform or Zoom. The participation face-to-face will require the University rules that will be published on the teaching Ariel website. Moreover, any news or updates of the rules imposed by Covid-19 will also be published on Ariel website.
All the students of the course will be allowed to take part of the lessons, in an asynchronous way, as all the recordings of the lessons and all the material used will be made available on Ariel.
The programme and the reference material will not be affected.
Unless further developments, as in previous years, the learning assessment includes a first written face-to-face test, and the subsequent oral test that will be carried out remotely.
The written test and relative orals will be evaluated with the same criteria previously used.
For students unable to reach the University for reasons related to the Covid-19 emergency, the exam will be carried out remotely at the same time of the written test performed in the presence.
If the emergency situation does not allow to perform the written test face-to-face, the examinations will take place, always in written form, remotely using the Microsoft Teams Platform or Zoom with the modalities illustrated on the University portal ( Students registered for the exam session will be contacted by email, giving all the necessary instructions for accessing the exam.
Course syllabus
The programme is divided into two parts: general and systematic parts.
General part
Medicinal Chemistry within chemical and biological disciplines.
Phase I and II Metabolism.
Drug-receptor/drug-enzyme interactions' nature.
Molecular properties conditioning biological activity: optical, geometric and conformational properties; Isosterism, bioisosterism, pharmacophore and prodrugs concepts
Chemical-physical constants used in structure-activity-relations.
Toppliss sequential method and Hansch approach correlation between chemical and biological data.
Drug development: from research to industrial production.
Industrial production of antibiotics by fermentation.
Systematic part:
Chemotherapeutic agents; Antibiotics; antimycobacterial drugs; antimycotic drugs; antiprotozoal drugs; antiviral agents; Antineoplastic drugs;
Corticosteroids; Hormones; Antidiabetic agents; Vitamins.
Prerequisites for admission
The mandatory requirement to face and pass the exam is the knowledge of General Chemistry and, above all, a good fluency in Organic Chemistry.
Therefore, in addition to the prerequisites provided by the course study plan, it would be advisable to pass also the Organic Chemistry II exam, in order to better understand the addressed synthetic topics.
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
All information about the program and educational materials (slide) is present on the teacher's ARIEL website.
Recommended Books:
Principi di chimica farmaceutica - Foye's PICCIN 2014
Chimica Farmaceutica - Patrick EDISES 2015
Chimica Farmaceutica - Wilson & Gisvold CEA 2014
Chimica Farmaceutica I processi di scoperta dei farmaci - Stevens PICCIN 2015
Principi di chimica farmaceutica - Foye's l'essenziale PICCIN 2017
Assessment methods and Criteria
The learning assessment includes a first written test and the subsequent oral test.
Written Test - it is just preparatory and it is necessary to ensure that the student has enough knowledge and fluency in the covered topics. It consists of the treatise of four to five topics relating to the design, mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships and synthesis of drugs/ classes of drugs reported in the programme. The test duration is of two hours.
Oral test - this test takes normally place after 10/15 days and it is sequential to the passing of the written test. The evaluation is positive if the student shows a discrete knowledge of the fundamental aspects of all the topics covered. It consists of the initial discussing of the written test and in the further treatment of other arguments of the course. The evaluation, expressed in thirtieths, considers the outcome of the written test and, above all, the critical dissertation of the topics covered during the oral test.
If the candidate do not pass the oral test, he will have to undergo again the written.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 10
Lessons: 80 hours
Professor: Valoti Ermanno