Microbiology

A.Y. 2020/2021
5
Max ECTS
55
Overall hours
SSD
MED/07 MED/46
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student will:
[1] Having acquired the fundamental knowledge relating to the structural and molecular organization, metabolism and virulence factors of the main microorganisms of medical interest.
[2] Know the study methods of microorganisms by using microscopic preparations to be observed.
[3] Know the different types of culture media and their use in the procedures for the isolation and quantification of microorganisms.
[4] Know the most common methods for identifying microorganisms by biochemical tests and serological tests.
[5] Based on this knowledge, it is capable of practically carrying out bacterial isolation and determination of bacterial load.
[6] Be able to describe the control methods of microorganisms using sterilization and disinfection techniques.
Expected learning outcomes
Undefined
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
- The program of the course will not be modified
- Teaching resources will not be modified
- Teaching method: on-line teaching on Microsoft Teams platform
- Assessment method: oral exam on Microsoft Teams platform
Prerequisites for admission
Student must have previously acquired the basic knowledge of the biology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is in a written form with test quiz and open questions about all the topics listed in the program. If required in particular case, there is the possibility to do oral examination. The result of examination is comunicated by e-mail message after registration on electronic register
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
Course syllabus
OVERVIEW ON MICROORGANISMS
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA
THE BACTERIAL CELL
· Dimensions, shape and grouping
· Architecture of the prokaryotic cell
THE CONCEPT OF SPECIES IN BACTERIOLOGY AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA
BACTERIAL REPRODUCTION AND SPORE PRODUCTION
BACTERIAL BIOFILM
BACTERIAL METABOLISM
· Metabolic processes that generate energy (fermentation, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration)
· The macromolecular syntheses in particular, the synthesis of peptidoglycan
MICROBIAL GROWTH
· Chemical requirements necessary for growth
· Physical requirements that condition growth
THE PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIA
· The mechanism of the pathogenic action of bacteria
· The toxins production
BACTERIOPHAGES
BACTERIAL GENETICS
· Gene structure and function
· Bacterial genetic heritage
· Bacterial mutations
· Intercellular transfer of genetic material: transformation, transduction, lysogenic conversion, conjugation
DISINFECTION AND STERILIZATION
CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA
· Culture media
· Bacterial growth in liquid media: the growth curve of a bacterial population
· Continuous bacterial culture
· Bacterial growth in solid media
· Techniques for bacterial isolation
· Storage of isolated bacteria
· Laboratory methods for the measurement of bacterial growth
ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS
· Antibiotics and chemotherapic agents
· Antimicrobial resistance
NOTES ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE DURING INFECTION
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF BACTERIA
· Fresh examination
· Examination of preparations by fixation and staining
· Gram staining
· Ziehl-Neelsen staining
· Ink staining
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL DISEASES
· Bacteriological test
· Determination of the bacteria sensitivity to the action of antibiotics and chemotherapics
· Serological tests
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL VIRUSES:
· Chemical composition and structure
CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA
VIRUS-HOST INTERACTION:
· Phases of the viral cycle
CULTIVATION AND TITRATION OF VIRUSES
· Cell cultures
· Identification of viral multiplication in cell cultures
· Titration of viruses
PATHOGENIC ACTION OF VIRUSES
THE ANTIVIRAL DEFENSES OF THE ORGANISM NOT DEPENDENT ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE-INTERFERON PRODUCTION
NOTES OF VIROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
· Demonstration of the presence of viruses in the organism
· Demonstration of a specific immune movement
ANTIVIRAL DRUGS
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MYCETES
· Structure of the fungal cell
· Fungal metabolism
· Reproduction method: sexual and asexual reproduction
· Classification of mycetes
· Ecology of pathogenic fungi and their geographical distribution
· Pathogenesis of mycoses
· Mechanism of the pathogenic action
· Antifungal drugs
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARASITES (PROTOZOI AND METAZOI)
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIONS
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Clinical Microbiology Exercises
Teaching Resources
-Eudes Lanciotti: Microbiologia Clinica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
-Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
-Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Medical and biotechnology laboratory techniques
Course syllabus
IMMUNITY IN INFECTIONS
· Nonspecific immunity
· Antigens and antibodies
· The immune response (humoral and cell-mediated immunity)
· The in vitro antigen-antibody interaction and serological reactions
· Immunity from vaccination
THE USE OF SEROLOGICAL TESTS FOR LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
INSTRUMENTS FOR MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION (optical and electronic microscope)
DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION DISEASES: general principles
PRACTICAL PERFORMING OF:
· Disinfection and sterilization
· Culture media preparation
· Microscopic examination of bacteria after Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen stains
· Bacterial count
· Determination of the bacteria sensitivity to the action of antibiotics and chemotherapics
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Teaching Resources
-Eudes Lanciotti: Microbiologia Clinica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
-Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
-Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Medical and biotechnology laboratory techniques
MED/46 - BIOTECHNOLOGY AND METHODS IN LABORATORY MEDICINE - University credits: 2
Practicals: 15 hours
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Parapini Silvia
Shifts:
Professor: Parapini Silvia
Gruppo 1
Professor: Parapini Silvia
Gruppo 2
Professor: Parapini Silvia
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Sisto Francesca