Pathogenetic basis of diseases

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
MED/04 MED/09
Learning objectives
The course aims to develop knowledge on the pathogenic basis of human diseases, with particular attention to limits and benefits of the main experimental models available and their correlation with clinical presentation of the disease. It is based on a series of lectures grouped on thematic sections and focusing on pathogenic mechanisms and experimental approaches. The course also includes two journal club sessions held by the students on selected scientific articles proposed by the Faculty, aimed at developing the student's ability to critical reading, presentation, and discussion of the scientific data.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire an integrated comprehension of the pathogenic basis of human pathology and on the correlation of pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations. They will also acquire information on potentials and limitations of experimental models available. The journal club sessions will allow them to develop critical reading, presentation, and scientific data discussion abilities.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First trimester
All classes planned during the first trimester will be given as frontal teaching and as distance synchronous learning. In case of a new suspension of frontal lectures, all students will be asked to move to distance synchronous learning..
Each hour of lesson will be divided into 45' of formal teaching followed by 15' of discussion/interaction/question time. All lessons will be recorded and made available for students on the indicated platforms (i.e. Ariel, TEAMS, etc).

The program and the reference material will not change

Unless otherwise specified, exams will be organized in classroom but if the student is unable to reach the building for COVID-related issues, other forms might be considered (this only apply for exams scheduled until the 31st December - 2020).
Prerequisites for admission
There is no specific preliminary knowledge
Assessment methods and Criteria
Exam based on a written test consisting of 4 open-ended questions relating to different modules of the program. The test takes place in 2 hours. The basic knowledge of the discipline and the capacity for critical reasoning on the study carried out is assessed. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths, the results are communicated through the University registration system.
General pathology and immunology
Course syllabus
Immunomediated diseases
Pathogen recognition and septic shock
Immune escape mechanisms by pathogens
The inflammasome and auto-inflammatory syndromes
Inflammation resolution: molecular mechanisms and experimental models
Pathogenic mechanisms in allergic diseases
Pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmune diseases
Pathogenic mechanisms in primary and acquired immunodeficiencies
Transplantation immunology
Liver transplant rejection
The graft versus host disease: experimental models and implications for bone marrow transplant. Role of microbiota on immune activation.
The immune contexture of solid tumors. Role of innate immunity in cancer
Experimental approaches to study the immune contexture of solid tumors
The immune contexture of solid tumors. Role of adaptive immunity in cancer
Ovary carcinoma: clinical presentation and experimental models
Molecular phenotypes of mammary carcinoma: clinical presentations and experimental models
In vivo imaging techniques (CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, ultrasound).
Infectious diseases
Pathogen recognition and septic shock
Immunothrombosis: hemostasis and innate immunity interplay
Soluble pathogen recognition receptors in infectious models
Immune escape mechanisms in experimental infectious models
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons based on teaching material available on the Ariel platform or provided directly in the classroom to students.
Class attendance is free.
Teaching Resources
Slides produced during the course. Scientific literature suggested by the teachers.
Internal medicine
Course syllabus
Iron metabolism and erythropoiesis
Iron overload disorders
Iron metabolism and hereditary hemochromatosis.
Metabolic diseases
The metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes
Experimental models of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Pathophysiology and genetics of a complex disease: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Liver and kidney diseases
Liver diseases (viral, cholestatic and autoimmune) and hepatocellular carcinoma
Human genetics and models of metabolic diseases
Kidney diseases
Seminars: applications of stem cells for in vitro modelling and treatment of human disorders, applications of cytofluorimetry and cell sorting for the study of human diseases.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system
Thrombosis, thrombogenesis and thrombotic diseases
Atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis: coronary heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease
Venous thromboembolism
Heart remodeling in systemic hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation
Modeling biologic systems: network based simulation for translational medicine: an application to anticoagulation
Antithrombotic pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy.
Aging and age-related diseases
Immune senescence and inflammaging
Premature lung aging in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases
Cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases
Alzheimer: pathogenesis and biomarkers.
Journal Club Sessions
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons based on teaching material available on the Ariel platform or provided directly in the classroom to students.
Class attendance is free.
Teaching Resources
Slides produced during the course. Scientific literature suggested by the teachers.
General pathology and immunology
Lessons: 42 hours
Internal medicine
MED/09 - INTERNAL MEDICINE - University credits: 6
Lessons: 42 hours
by appointment (e-mail request)
Marangoni pavilion, Policlinico IRCCS hospital, via F Sforza 35, Milan