Petrology and Laboratory

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Knowledge and understanding: originality in developing and applying ideas concerning petrological issues, comparing model and natural systems.
Expected learning outcomes
Applying knowledge and understanding: apply knowledge and understanding, and problem solving abilities using experimental and computational methods
Making judgements: ability to handle petrological data, and formulate judgements and hypotheses
Communication skills: communicate conclusions and knowledge of petrological issues
Learning skills: study petrological issues in a self-directed or autonomous manner.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
If possible, classes will be held in the classroom. Classes will be recorded and made available on the Microsoft Teams platform. Classes will be held uniquely on a virtual Microsoft Teams group if Covid emergency gets worser, following the same schedule. Exercises will be held 50% in classroom and 50% in laboratory. If not possible, all the exercises will be held in a virtual laboratory. Exercises are mandatory for this course.
Course syllabus
Principles of phase petrology:
I) Composition Space: barycentric coordinates, choice of components, units of quantity (mass, atoms, oxygens, cations, oxides units), conservative and non-conservative units. Transformation of coordinate axes: projection into AFM diagram; determination of mineral in terms of end members; mass balanceII) Phase diagrams and phase equilibria: Lever rule, Phase Rule, Binary and ternary phase diagrams (complete and partial solid solutions, complete immiscibility, solvus, eutectic, peritectic and intermediate compounds); Equilibrium thermodynamics of heterogeneous and homogeneous systems, thermodynamic properties of solid solutions, Gibbs stability criterion and Gibbs Free energy, G-X, T-X, P-T-X diagrams, pseudosections.
Metamorphic processes: Calculations of metamorphic phase equilibria, the P-T-X-M phase relations, the use of thermodynamic calculators: programs and databases; Geothermobarometry; symplectites; case studies.
Magmatic processes: This part of the course is focused on the petrology of Earth's mantle and the correlated magmatism. In particular, this set of lessons aimed to provide a whole and updated framework of the knowledge on petrologic processes acting in the mantle during the partial melting and melt migration at ocean-ridge and "plume"-derived settings. It has been argued how the chemical and isotopic composition of basalts extruded in these geodynamic environments can give information on mantle source composition.

Practicals: application of linear algebra to petrological problems; chemical analysis of minerals: from microprobe analysis to graphical representation of results; calculations of phase diagrams. Practicing in experimental petrology. Experimental methods devoted to the transformation of minerals, rocks and ceramic analogues. Process variables: temperature, pressure, partial pressure of gaseous species, time, properties of raw materials and starting mixtures. Trips to outcrops of petrologic interest are programmed.
Lectures and practice exercises in classroom and laboratory. Field trips.
Prerequisites for admission
Suggested courses: 1) "Rocks, Minerals and Fluids Analysis and practicals"; 2) Mineral Resources and Geomaterials; 3) Physics of Earth's Interior.
Teaching methods
Classes attendance is strongly suggested.

6 cfu (48 h) lectures
2 cfu ( 24 h) practicals
1 cfu (12 h) field work
Teaching Resources
Teaching materials will be available on the lecturer's ARIEL homepage.
Suggested books:
Winter J.D. "Principles of igneous and metamorphic petrology", Pearson
Spear F.S. "Metmorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths", MSA monograph
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral exam concerns topics treated during the course, in particular petrology of natural systems.
GEO/07 - PETROLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY - University credits: 9
Field activity: 12 hours
Practicals: 24 hours
Lessons: 48 hours