The course is aiming at providing general basis of the functioning of the different organs and systems of the human body and their integration and of the functional control mechanisms in normal conditions; The course will also provide the general basis of pathogenesis and pathophysiological mechanisms and of the causes of disease in the human being.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to: · discuss the function of the various organs of the human body; · discuss the dynamic integration of the various organs into systems; · discuss functional control mechanisms in normal conditions; · discuss fundamental pathogenesis and pathophysiological mechanisms; · discuss the causes of human diseases.
Lesson period: Second semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
Being enrolled in the 1st year of the degree program Basic knowledge of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology at the level of high school
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written test with quiz
- Cell membrane: functions, structure, passages of water and solutes, osmosis, transporters, Na+/K+ pump, resting potential - Excitable tissues: action potential, cable properties, conduction, nerve fibers, synapses, nervous integration - Muscle: excitation-contraction coupling, mechanics, motor units, motor neurons, force control - Sensitivity: general properties, thermal sensitivity and pain, tactile sensitivity, proprioception - Special senses: vision, hearing, equilibrium - Motor system: spinal cord and reflexes, autonomic nervous system, postural control - Motor system: structure of the brain, motor cortex and descending pathways, cerebellum, basal ganglia - Heart and circulation: electrical activity of the heart, pumping function, blood circulation, regulation (autonomous system) - Respiration: breathing mechanics, gas exchange, effects on acid-base balance, regulation (autonomous system) - Kidney: fluid and solute exchanges, glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion, regulation of body fluids (autonomous system), effects on acid-base balance
Traditional lectures in classroom
W.J. Germann e C.L. Stanfield, "Fisiologia", EdiSES D.U. Silverthorn, "Fisiologia umana - un approccio integrato", Pearson L. Zocchi (et al.), "Principi di Fisiologia", EdiSES For the motor system: Baldissera, F. e Porro, C.A. (edited by). "Fisiologia e biofisica medica", vol I, Poletto editore During the course the lessons slides will be made available in ARIEL
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
DAMAGE AND CELL DEATH: Cellular responses to damage; Cell death; apoptosis; necrosis CELL GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION: Cellular adaptations (hyperplasia, hypertrophy and atrophy) COMPONENTS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Structure and effector functions of antibodies; Generation of B cell diversity; The Major Histocompatibility Complex, the Diversity of MHC molecules and gene polymorphism; Structure, function and distribution of MHC class I and II molecules; Antigen recognition and activation of T lymphocytes; structure and generation of TCR diversity; Accessory molecules CD4 and CD8; Effectors mechanism of cell-mediated immunity: T helper lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. HYPER-REACTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (IPERSENSIBILITY): Type I hypersensitivity reactions AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Effector mechanisms of autoimmunity TRANSPLANTATION OF TISSUES AND ORGANS: Hyperacute, acute and chronic rejection of transplants; Bone Marrow transplantation: the GVHD reaction INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR PROCESSES: Acute inflammation; Vascular changes; Diapedesis and Chemotaxis; Phagocytosis and mechanisms of killing microorganisms; Chemical mediators; Systemic reactions of inflammation; Chronic inflammation and repair process NEOPLASIA: classification; Benign neoplastic growth; Malignant neoplastic growth; Molecular bases of cancer: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes; Physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis; Cancer cell biology; Metastatic process HEMODYNAMIC ALTERATIONS: Homeostasis and Thrombosis; Edema; Embolism; Infarction; Shock
Traditional lectures in classroom
G.M. Pontieri "Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia Generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie." (Piccin Ed.) During the course the lessons slides will be made available in ARIEL
By videocall in Microsoft Teams until the end of the health emergency, then also at the Section Physiology, Dept. Pathophysiology and Transplantation, via L. Mangiagalli 32, Milano - 2nd floor, room n. 10