Social justice in a global world

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
40
Overall hours
SSD
SPS/04
Language
English
Learning objectives
The course focuses on topics and questions currently at the centre of the philosophical debate on global justice. On the one hand, the course aims at familiarizing students with the basic notions and concepts crucial to make sense of questions of distributive justice as well as with the major conceptions of justice developed for the domestic level. On the other hand, the course intends to offer clues for appreciating the peculiarity of the global domain, the specific challenges connected to extending requirements of justice beyond domestic contexts, and the key arguments for and against such an extension.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding:
Students are expected to acquire a clear understanding about the key notions and concepts employed in the philosophical debate concerning distributive justice. Students are also expected to acquire in-depth knowledge concerning the major approaches to distributive justice developed for the domestic domain and to understand their assumptions and their implications for the debate on global justice. Moreover, students are expected to gain familiarity with the peculiarity of the global domain, with the challenges connected to extending requirements of justice beyond domestic contexts and with arguments for and against such an extension.

Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course, students are expected to be able to apply their acquired knowledge and competences in the field of distributive justice and global justice to issues animating public debates. To this end, the course offers several occasions for in-depth class discussion, which will provide a suitable space for debating the relevance and import of the philosophical notions and approaches under examination with respect to more concrete issues and questions. Moreover, the course focuses on topics currently at the centre of public debate - such as migration and climate change - that are precisely meant to increase students' understanding about how to use abstract and general philosophical arguments to tackle more specific problems.

Making judgements:
Thanks to the structure of the course and the selected readings, students are expected to increase their propensity for autonomous judgment. To this end, students will be required to read and examine essays providing opposing arguments (e.g. one essay for and one essay against a certain conception of justice) or essays endorsing different theoretical and methodological approaches. Students will be therefore introduced to a plurality of perspectives and this is expected to improve their capacity to adjudicate among conflicting arguments by autonomously assessing their relative merits and limits. Moreover, the bulk of the course will consist in the analysis of philosophical arguments - of their premises and their internal structure - and students will be required to critically examine the arguments at stake, thus further enhancing their capacity to autonomously judge their validity.

Communication:
Students are expected to acquire familiarity with the argumentative strategies endorse in philosophical debates, which offer insights on how to elaborate consistent arguments or proposals and on how to effectively defend them and which are therefore functional to improve students' communication skills by. Moreover, students will be required to summarize and discuss complex arguments in a clear and effective way both orally - through in-class presentations - and in written form, thus having a further opportunity to strengthen their communication skills. For attendant students, similar skills are expected to be enhanced also through class discussions, which are meant to provide students with the opportunity to improve their argumentative capacities by engaging with arguments proposed by their classmates.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second trimester
Course syllabus
The course addresses issues of distributive justice with a special focus on the global dimension.

The course will provide a preliminary overview of the basic notions and concepts necessary to understand questions of distributive justice. Particular attention is paid to the notions of equality and justice and to the different conceptions of similar notions. The course will also provide insights concerning the major contemporary approaches in the field of distributive justice developed for the domestic level and on the relevant grounds to compare between them. More precisely, the focus will be on Rawlsian liberal egalitarianism, libertarianism, and luck-egalitarianism.

On a similar background, the course will address the debate on global justice. The course will offer insights for appreciating the peculiarity of the global domain, for familiarizing with the specific challenges connected to extending requirements of justice beyond domestic contexts, and for comprehending the main arguments for and against such an extension. The course will also illustrate different approaches to inequalities at the global level and it will focus on justice-related questions concerning poverty, immigration and climate change.

Syllabus for attendant students:

- Lecture 1: Justice and Equality
- Lecture 2: The Rawlsian Paradigm
- Lecture 3: Libertarianism and Luck-Egalitarianism
- Lecture 4: Presentations and class discussion on "The Rawlsian paradigm"
- Lecture 5: Presentations and class discussion on "Libertarianism and Luck-Egalitarianism"
- Lecture 6: Extending the Rawlsian Paradigm?
- Lecture 7: Students' presentations and class discussion on "Extending the Rawlsian Paradigm?"
- Lecture 8: Humanitarian Requirements and Duties of Justice
- Lecture 9: Presentations and class discussion on "Humanitarian Requirements and Duties of Justice"
- Lecture 10: Global Egalitarianism
- Lecture 11: Presentations and class discussion on "Global Egalitarianism"
- Lecture 12: World Poverty: Causes and Responsibilities
- Lecture 13: Presentations and class discussion on "World Poverty: Causes and Responsibilities"
- Lecture 14: Against Global Justice
- Lecture 15: Presentations and class discussion on "Against Global Justice"
- Lecture 16: Open vs. Closed Borders
- Lecture 17: Presentations and class discussion on "Open vs. Closed Borders"
- Lecture 18: Climate Change
- Lecture 19: Presentations and class discussion on "Climate Change"
- Lecture 20: Recap Lecture

Please note: The previous syllabus is provisional. The syllabus will be fine-tuned at the beginning of the course, and its final version, with more precise indications about the relevant dates, will be available on the Ariel website of the course.
Prerequisites for admission
No specific preliminary knowledge is required to fruitfully attend the course or take the exam.
Teaching methods
The course combines lessons, students' presentations, and class discussion.
Teaching Resources
The exam material is different for 1. attendant students and 2. non-attendant students


1. Attendant students

For attendant students, the exam material organized with reference to the topics included in the syllabus. Readings are indeed expected to be completed in advance of the relevant session devoted to presentations and class-discussion.

· Justice and Equality
- Carter, I. (2012) "Equality", in A. Besussi (ed.), A Companion to Political Philosophy. Methods, Tools, Topics, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 161-170.
- Arneson, R. (2007), "Equality", in R. Goodin, P. Pettit and T. Pogge (eds.), A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 583-611.

· The Rawlsian Paradigm
- Rawls, J. (1971), A Theory of Justice, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press: §§ 1-6, 11, 20-22, and 24-25 (pp. 3-33, pp. 60-65, pp. 118-130, pp. 136-150).

· Libertarianism and Luck-Egalitarianism
- Nozick, R. (1974), Anarchy, State, and Utopia, New York: Basic Books: pp. ix-xiv, pp. 26-35, pp. 149-164, and pp. 167-174.
- Cohen, G.A. (2006), "Luck and Equality: A Reply to Hurley", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 72(2): 439-446.

· Extending the Rawlsian Paradigm?
- Beitz, C. R. (1979), Political Theory and International Relations, Princeton: Princeton University Press: Part 3 - International Distributive Justice, Section 1 "Social Cooperation, Boundaries, and the Basis of Justice", Section 2 "Entitlements to Natural Resources", and Section 3 "Interdependence and Global Distributive Justice" (pp. 125-153).
- Rawls, J. (1999), The Law of Peoples, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press: §§ 1- 4 and 15-16 (pp. 11-43 and pp. 105-120).

· Humanitarian Requirements and Duties of Justice
- Singer, P. (1972) "Famine, Affluence, and Morality," Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1(3): 229-243.
- Barry, B. (1982), "Humanity and Justice in Global Perspective", in J. Pennock and J. Chapman (eds.), NOMOS XXIV: Ethics, Economics and the Law, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf; now in Barry, B. (1989), Liberty and Justice, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 182-210.

· Global Egalitarianism
- Caney, S. (2001), "Cosmopolitan Justice and Equalizing Opportunities", Metaphilosophy, 32(1/2): 113-134.
- Tan, K. C. (2011), "Luck, Institutions, and Global Distributive Justice: A Defence of Global Luck Egalitarianism", European Journal of Political Theory, 10(3): 394-421.

· World Poverty: Causes and Responsibilities
- Pogge, T.W. (2002), "Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a Global Resources Dividend", in World Poverty and Human Rights, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 196-215.
- Patten, A. (2005), "Should We Stop Thinking about Poverty in Terms of Helping the Poor?", Ethics & International Affairs, 19(1), 19-27.

· Against Global Justice
- Nagel, T. (2005) "The Problem of Global Justice", Philosophy & Public Affairs, 33(2): 113-147.
- Sangiovanni, A. (2007), "Global Justice, Reciprocity, and the State", Philosophy & Public Affairs, 35(1): 3-39.

· Open vs. Closed Borders
- Carens, J. (1987), "Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders", Review of Politics, 49(2): 251-273.
- Miller, D. (2005), "Immigration: The Case for its Limits", in A.I. Cohen and C.H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 193-206.

· Climate Change
- Shue, H. (1993), "Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions", in Climate Justice. Vulnerability and Protection, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 47-67.
- Mollendorf, D. (2015), "Climate Change Justice", Philosophy Compass, 10(3), 173-186.

For attendant students, the material for the written test includes all reading assignments listed above plus the slides with the lecture notes, which will be available on the Ariel website of the course.

Please note: Readings which are difficult to find will be available on the Ariel website of the course.


2. Non-attendant students

· Material for the written test

The written test for non-attendant students will focus on the following reading assignments (it is advisable to approach the readings in the provided order):

- Arneson, R. (2007), "Equality", in R. Goodin, P. Pettit and T. Pogge (eds.), A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 583-611.
- Carter, I. (2012), "Equality", in A. Besussi (ed.), A Companion to Political Philosophy. Methods, Tools, Topics, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 161-170.
- Maffettone, S. (2012) "Justice", in A. Besussi (ed.), A Companion to Political Philosophy. Methods, Tools, Topics, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 183-194.
- Blake, M. and Smith, P.T. (2015), "International Distributive Justice", in E.N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; available at the following link: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/international-justi…
- Brock, G. (2009), Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 10.
- Rawls, J. (1999), The Law of Peoples, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press: §§ 1, 2, 3, 4, 15 and 16 (pp. 11-43 and pp. 105-120).
- Pogge, T.W. (2002), "Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a Global Resources Dividend", in World Poverty and Human Rights, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 196-215.

· Material for the oral exam

The oral exam for non-attendant students will focus on 3 readings freely selected by each student from the following list:

- Beitz, C. R. (1979), Political Theory and International Relations, Princeton: Princeton University Press: Part 3 - International Distributive Justice, Section 1 "Social Cooperation, Boundaries, and the Basis of Justice", section 2 "Entitlements to Natural Resources", and section 3 "Interdependence and Global Distributive Justice" (pp. 125-153).
- Singer, P. (1972) "Famine, Affluence, and Morality," Philosophy &Public Affairs, 1(3): 229-243.
- Barry, B. (1982), "Humanity and Justice in Global Perspective", in J. Pennock and J. Chapman (eds.), NOMOS XXIV: Ethics, Economics and the Law, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf; now in Barry, B. (1989), Liberty and Justice, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 182-210.
- Caney, S. (2001), "Cosmopolitan Justice and Equalizing Opportunities", Metaphilosophy, 32(1/2): 113-134.
- Tan, K. C. (2011), "Luck, Institutions, and Global Distributive Justice: A Defence of Global Luck Egalitarianism", European Journal of Political Theory, 10(3): 394-421.
- Patten, A. (2005), "Should We Stop Thinking about Poverty in Terms of Helping the Poor?", Ethics & International Affairs, 19(1), 19-27.
- Nagel, T. (2005) "The Problem of Global Justice", Philosophy & Public Affairs, 33(2): 113-147.
- Sangiovanni, A. (2007), "Global Justice, Reciprocity, and the State", Philosophy & Public Affairs, 35(1): 3-39.
- Carens, J. (1987), "Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders", Review of Politics, 49(2): 251-273.
- Miller, D. (2005), "Immigration: The Case for its Limits", in A.I. Cohen and C.H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 193-206.
- Shue, H. (1993), "Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions", in Climate Justice. Vulnerability and Protection, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 47-67.
- Mollendorf, D. (2015), "Climate Change Justice", Philosophy Compass, 10(3), 173-186.

Please note: Readings which are difficult to find will be available on the Ariel website of the course.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam structure is different for 1. attendant and 2. non-attendant students.

1. Attendant students

Attendant students will be assessed on the basis of their class participation and presentations, and they will be required to deliver an in-class written test at the end of the course.

Participation is assessed by taking into account students' contribution to class discussion. The evaluation is meant to ascertain the acquisition of argumentative skills apt to effectively engage in discussion about the topics at stake and about the assigned readings, to autonomously assess the validity of the arguments under examination, to challenge or defend them on the basis of appropriate reasons, and to propose insights for further reflection.

For what regards presentations, students will be required to summarize and discuss the central arguments proposed in the assigned readings. The evaluation is intended to ascertain students' capacity to identify the relevant points of the texts under scrutiny, to reconstruct their argumentative structure and their conclusions. The evaluation is also meant to ascertain students' capacity to assess the internal coherence of the arguments at stake, to enlighten and critically examine their implications.

The written test comprises open questions, which are meant to ascertain the acquisition of appropriate knowledge and understanding of the reading assignments and of the topics addressed in class. The written test is also meant to ascertain students' ability to establish connections between the various topics covered by the course and to comparatively assess different approaches and arguments.

Final grades will be awarded by weighting participation, presentation and written test as follows:
- Participation: 25 %
- Presentation: 35 %
- Written test: 40 %


2. Non-attendant students

For non-attendant students, the exam is divided into two parts: a written test and an oral exam (provided the written test is passed).

The written test comprises open questions, which are meant to ascertain the acquisition of appropriate knowledge and understanding of the topics addressed in the assigned readings. More precisely, the written test is meant to assess students' familiarity with the basic notions and the theoretical approaches addressed in the assigned readings. The written test also evaluates students' capacity to establish meaningful connections among the different topics covered by the assigned readings and to comparatively assess different approaches and arguments.

The oral exam consists in a critical discussion of the reading assignments selected be the students. The oral exam is meant to assess students' capacity to summarize the main points of the selected texts, to autonomously assess the validity of the arguments under examination, to challenge or defend them on the basis of appropriate reasons.

The written test and the oral exam contribute to the final mark each for 50%.
SPS/04 - POLITICAL SCIENCE - University credits: 6
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Pasquali Francesca
Professor(s)
Reception:
Next office hours: Wednesday September 30th, 17:00-19:00. Office hours are currently held online via Zoom. No appointment required, just use the following link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/81163502773
Department of Social and political sciences, second floor, room 205