Statistic, Epidemiology a History of Medicine

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
MED/01 MED/02 MED/42
Learning objectives
The course is aimed at providing students with:
- advanced knowledge of the history of medicine, in order to better understand the evolution of the work profiles of healthcare professionals and physicians;
- awareness of "human facts", usually regarded as "past", whose knowledge promotes the encounter between the past and the present features of mankind, with the aim of providing benefits to future human beings;
- the statistical knowledge necessary to develop a data set and write reports describing analyses and related results for research and/or management purposes in the context of healthcare services;
- the core purposes, research methods and application areas of Epidemiology.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
- select and apply basic and advanced theoretical models of statistics and probability;
- assess the reliability of measures in the biomedical field and interpret statistical and epidemiological data for the progressive improvement of care and rehabilitation processes;
- collaborate in quantitative and qualitative research projects and verify the application of research results for further improvement of rehabilitation processes
- document one's own rehabilitative practice;
- describe the history and evolution of Medicine
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Most lessons will take place synchronously through the Teams platforms. If possible, some lessons will be organized in presence, following the indications provided by the University as concerns safety and social distancing, with simultaneous activation of the remote mode via Teams. All lessons will be recorded and made available to students on the Ariel platform, together with additional learning materials.
The course program and materials will not change.
During the emergency phase exams will be performed orally through Teams. Whenever possible, written exams - as decribed in the assessment method section - will be organized in presence, following the indications concerning safety and social distancing. The possibility to perform the exam orally in remote mode will be anyway guaranteed for students living in other regions or countries, as well as for students with serious pathologies.
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge required.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment of learning outcomes consists of a written test, taking place during specific exam sessions, as per the Rules. The test includes multiple choice questions.
All the modules comprised in the teaching contribute to determining the final mark, expressed on a scale of 30 as the weighted average of the marks obtained for each module.
No intermediate or early exam sessions are planned.
Teaching materials or notes are not allowed for consultation during testing.
The results are published on the ARIEL website of the master degree.
Medical statistics
Course syllabus
- Evaluation of the reliability of methods of collecting and measuring data of biomedical interest
- The concept of trustworthiness of a measure, sample, population, estimate and parameter
- Causes of systematic errors and random errors
Variability: quantitative character variability within the individual and between individuals
- Descriptive methods: Interpretation of graphic representations of a distribution; the concepts of medium value, dispersion, and for of a distribution; Calculation of the main location and dispersion indices of a distribution; measurement accuracy and accuracy indices; quantiles (quartiles, centili) - Reference limits; Kappa Correlation and statistics
- Gaussian model: Interpreting population data; characteristics of the Gaussian measurement error distribution model
- Screening tests: merging and intersection of events; probability; calculation of the probability of an event, the intersection of independent events, and conditional events; logical basis of the screening test; definitions of falsely positive and falsely negative outcome with respect to a diagnostic marker threshold value; sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test or symptom; calculation and discussion of the concept of positive and negative predictive value; likelihood report for a success (or failure) at the diagnostic test; concept of pre-test and post-test probability and odds; Bayes' theorem
- Sample estimate of population parameters from data expressed in various ways; sample variability; distinguishing between sample and population concepts; distinguishing between the sample prediction concepts of a parameter and parameter of a population
- Sampling distribution: distribution of sample estimates; standard error meaning of a sample prediction
- Confidence interval and its meaning
- Hypothesis testing: error of I and II type; power of a test; logical basis of the sample size calculation; difference between statistical significance and clinical significance; how to build a statistical test for assumptions about the population average (known variance); Testing of independence between variables: the chi-squared
- Differences between deterministic model and probabilistic model; characteristics of the simple linear regression model and the meaning of simple linear regression parameters; Taking a hypothesis test on the parameters of the simple linear regression model; how to correct (adjust) for a confusing variable the association between two data series
Teaching methods
The teaching is provided through frontal classroom lessons, scheduled according to a timetable published on the ARIEL website of the master degree.
Teaching Resources
- M. Pagano e K. Gauvreau Biostatistica (2ª edizione) Editore: Idelson-Gnocchi 2003
- M. Bland Statistica medica (Idee & strumenti) Bland.html Editore: Apogeo 2009
- JF. Jekel, DL. Katz, JG. Elmore, DMG. Wild Epidemiologia Biostatistica e Medicina Preventiva (3ª edizione) Editore: Masson 2009
Hygiene and public health
Course syllabus
1. Meaning and use of the epidemiological method: from data analysis to programming and evaluation within the health system.
2. Using health and demographic data in epidemiology
- Main sources of health and demographic data
- Indicators: meaning and use
- Guided analysis of current health data
3. Frequency measurements:
- Ratios, proportions, rates;
- Concept of prevalence, incidence, incidence density, cumulative incidence
- Rate standardization
- Guided exercises
4. Study drawings and their application
- Ecological studies (or correlation studies) and their application: the search for differences. Case study.
- Prevalence studies and their application: case study
- Cohort studies and their application
- Case control studies and their application
Experimental studies
5. Association and impact measures: relative risk, odds ratio, risk attributable as an absolute measure and as a relative measure
6. Studies for the evaluation of preventive trials
- Epidemiological impact of vaccinations
- Evaluation and meaning of screening tests
7. Global Health
- Key concepts and definition of Global Health; its evolution from tropical medicine to public health and international health
- Global burden of disease, epidemiological transition and global indicators of progress in health; recent phenomena and the future of Global Haelth
- Socio-economic determinants of health
- UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
- TB as a model for Global Haelth
- World Health Organization and other actors; international cooperation; the big challenges: migration and climate change
Teaching methods
The teaching consists of frontal classroom lessons, scheduled according to a timetable published on the ARIEL website of the master degree.
Teaching Resources
-Auxilia F, Pontello M. «Igiene e sanità pubblica» Ed. Piccin
-Lopalco PL, Tozzi AE. «Epidemiologia facile» Il pensiero scientifico editore
-Skolnik R. Global Health 101, 3rd Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2016
Medical history
Course syllabus
- The origins and meaning of Medicine and the History of Medicine
- Study and research sources: Medicine in ancient Greece and Rome. Medieval Medicine; Knowing the body:
Renaissance and Animated Anatomy. Iatrophysics and Iatrochemistry. Microscopic anatomy.
- Enlightenment and public health: occupational diseases, hygiene and preventive medicine, vaccine prophylaxis,
orthopedics, humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill persons.
- The birth of Clinics and its tools: semeiotics, diagnostics and therapy; Surgery problems and their solution:
analgesia, anesthesia, asepsis and antisepsis. Cell theory and microbiology.
- The 20th century: new concepts, tools and therapies; Evolution and transformation of hospitals.
- Elements of the history of public health in Lombardy
Teaching methods
The teaching is provided through frontal classroom lessons, scheduled according to a timetable published on the ARIEL website of the master degree.
Teaching Resources
- Porro A., Franchini A.F., Cristini C., Galimberti P.M. Lorusso L., Falconi B., Lezioni Di Storia Della Medicina. Gli Strumenti 3, Rudiano, Gam, 2013.
- Porro A., Cristini C., Falconi B., Franchini A.F., Galimberti P.M., Lorusso L., Lezioni Di Storia Della Medicina 2, -Rudiano, Gam, 2011.
- Porro A., Falconi B., Franchini A.F. Lezioni Di Storia Della Medicina 1, Rudiano, Gam Editrice, 2009.
Porro A., Storia Della Medicina 1 (Fino Al Xix Secolo). In Appendice: Storia Dell'odontoiatria, Rudiano, Gam Editrice, 2009.
- Belloni L., Per La Storia Della Medicina, Sala Bolognese, Forni, 1990.
Hygiene and public health
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Amendola Antonella
Medical history
MED/02 - MEDICAL HISTORY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 8 hours
Professor: Porro Alessandro
Medical statistics
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 24 hours
For meetings, please write an email.
Campus Cascina Rosa, via A. Vanzetti, 5, 20133 Milano - room number 3 - 4
previo appuntamento e-mail
Padiglione Centro Ipertensione - Ospedale maggiore Policlinico - 1* p.